Road to American Revolution
- Magna Carta, meaning "The Great Charter", is a very famous English document that was originally issued to King John of England.
- The document said that the law applied to everyone, including rulers.
- The Glorious Revolution ended the reign of James II and brought forth the reign of William III and Mary II.
- Political and religious issues led to this revolution in England.
- The Glorious Revolution got rid of absolutism (absolute monarchy) and established constitutional monarchy in England, as well as led to the English Bill of Rights.
English Bill of Rights-
- The English Bill of Rights had a huge influence on the colonies in America and the U.S. Constitution.
- Important articles of the document included: "No excessive fines should imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted." and "Members should have freedom of speech in Parliament." (Sound familiar?)
French and Indian War-
- The French and Indian War, or the Seven Years' War, lasted from 1756 to 1763 and was a war between England and France (France had help from the Indians, ergo, French and INDIAN War)
- This war was the beginning of open hostilities between colonists and Great Britain, as England required money and supplies that drained America's resources.
- The French ended up losing the war overall (see Treaty of Paris below for more details)
Treaty of Paris-
- The Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War between Great Britain and France.
- As part of the treaty, France gave up all of its territories in North America, ending any foreign military threat to British colonies.
Proclamation of 1763-
- The Proclamation of 1763 closed off the frontier to colonial expansion, forbidding colonists from traveling beyond the Appalachian Mountains.
- The colonists ended up breaking this law, as they needed to expand due to increasing populations.
- Colonial merchants were required to pay a certain amount of tax money per gallon of sugar and other products such as coffee and certain wines.
- Because of corruption, however, many merchants evaded the taxes on sugar.
- The English market suffered because of this.
- The Stamp Act imposed a tax on all paper documents in the colonies.
- This act was an attempt to get out of debt by the English.
- Colonists protested against the Stamp Act, but one named Patrick Henry stood above the rest for his famous quote of "Give me liberty or give me death!!"
- Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in 1766.
Quartering Act (March)-
- The Quartering Act required colonies to house British soldiers in barracks provided by the colonies
- If the barracks were too small to house all the soldiers, then locals were to house them in local inns, livery stables, ale houses, victualing houses, and wine-sellers' houses.
Sons of Liberty (early summer)-
- In Boston, a group of shopkeepers and artisans called The Loyal Nine began preparing for agitation against the Stamp Act.
- As the group grew, it came to be known as the Sons of Liberty.
- The first widely known acts of the Sons took place on August 14, 1765.
- The Declaratory Act accompanied the repeal of the Stamp Act.
- It stated that the British Parliament's taxing authority was the same in America as in Great Britain.
- The Townshend Acts imposed taxes on glass, lead, paints, paper and tea imported into the colonies.
- It was introduced by a Chancellor of the English Parliament named Charles Townshend.
Boston Massacre (March 5th)-
- The Boston Massacre was the killing of five colonists by British soldiers.
- The colonists threw snowballs, stones and sticks at the squad of British soldiers.
- The soldiers were tried and found not guilty by a jury.