Chapter 1: Psychology's History and Approaches

PSYCHOLOGY- the science of behavior and mental processes

WILHELM WUNDT- created the first laboratory in Germany, experimented with reaction time

NATURE-NURTURE ISSUE- the debate on whether we are born with our traits or if they develop through experiences

EMPIRICISM- John Locke; the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should therefore rely on observation and experimentation

STRUCTURALISM- Edward Titchner; the structural elements of the mind; used introspection to encourage patients to describe an object and assumed the way they describe indicates something about their mental state

FUNCTIONALISM- William James; focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function/enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish

PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES

BIOLOGICAL- How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences; how genes combine with environment to influence individual differences

EVOLUTIONARY- How the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes

PSYCHODYNAMIC- How behavior comes from unconscious drives and conflicts

BEHAVIORAL- How we learn observable responses

COGNITIVE- How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information

HUMANISTIC- How we meet our needs for love and acceptance and achieve self- fulfillment

SOCIAL-CULTURAL- How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures

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