Elements of Poetry (Page 640)
Metaphors: Describe one thing as if it were something else.
Personification: Gives human qualities to something nonhuman.
Similes: Use like or as to compare two unlike things.
Sound Devices (Page 640)
Alliteration: Is the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginnings of words.
Repetition: Is the repeated use of a sound, word, or phrase.
Assonance: Is the repetition of vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sounds.
Consonance: Is the repetition of final consonant sounds in stressed syllables with different consonant sounds.
Onomatopoeia: Is the use of words that imitate sounds.
Rhyme: Is the repetition of sounds at the ends of words.
Rhythm: Is the pattern of strong and weak beats, as well as pauses, in a poem.
Structure of Poetry (Page 641)
Lines: Helps poets add natural pauses by breaking up a poem into many individual parts.
Stanzas: Are the arrangement of groups of lines to create an appearance on the page or to organize thoughts.
Meter: Is the rhythmical pattern, or the arrangement and number of stressed and unstressed syllables.
Rhyme scheme: Is the pattern of rhyme in a poem.
Forms of poetry (Page 642-643)
Lyric Poetry: Expresses the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker, often in very musical verse.
Sonnets: Are fourteen-line poems with a formal tone that follow a specific rhyme scheme.
Odes: Are poems with a formal tone, written for the single purpose of celebrating or honoring a person, object, or idea.
Elegies: Are formal poems that reflect on death or other solemn, serious themes.
Narrative Poetry: Tells a story in verse.
Epics: Are long narrative poems that tell an exciting or inspiring story, usually about a hero.
Ballads: Are song-like poems that tell a story, often dealing with adventure, tragedy, or romance.
Free Verse Poetry: Is defined by its lack of strict structure.
Limericks: Are humorous five-line poems with a specific rhythmic pattern and an aabba rhyme scheme.
Concrete Poem: Are arranged on the page to form shape that suggests the topic or ideas in the poem.
Haikus: Are short, unrhymed poems, often about nature.