Elements of Poetry (Page 640)

Metaphors: Describe one thing as if it were something else.

Personification: Gives human qualities to something nonhuman.

Similes: Use like or as to compare two unlike things.

Sound Devices (Page 640)

Alliteration: Is the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginnings of words.

Repetition: Is the repeated use of a sound, word, or phrase.

Assonance: Is the repetition of vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sounds.

Consonance: Is the repetition of final consonant sounds in stressed syllables with different consonant sounds.

Onomatopoeia: Is the use of words that imitate sounds.

Rhyme: Is the repetition of sounds at the ends of words.

Rhythm: Is the pattern of strong and weak beats, as well as pauses, in a poem.

Structure of Poetry (Page 641)

Lines: Helps poets add natural pauses by breaking up a poem into many individual parts.

Stanzas: Are the arrangement of groups of lines to create an appearance on the page or to organize thoughts.

Meter: Is the rhythmical pattern, or the arrangement and number of stressed and unstressed syllables.

Rhyme scheme: Is the pattern of rhyme in a poem.

Forms of poetry (Page 642-643)

Lyric Poetry: Expresses the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker, often in very musical verse.

Sonnets: Are fourteen-line poems with a formal tone that follow a specific rhyme scheme.

Odes: Are poems with a formal tone, written for the single purpose of celebrating or honoring a person, object, or idea.

Elegies: Are formal poems that reflect on death or other solemn, serious themes.

Narrative Poetry: Tells a story in verse.

Epics: Are long narrative poems that tell an exciting or inspiring story, usually about a hero.

Ballads: Are song-like poems that tell a story, often dealing with adventure, tragedy, or romance.

Free Verse Poetry: Is defined by its lack of strict structure.

Limericks: Are humorous five-line poems with a specific rhythmic pattern and an aabba rhyme scheme.

Concrete Poem: Are arranged on the page to form shape that suggests the topic or ideas in the poem.

Haikus: Are short, unrhymed poems, often about nature.