Industrial Revolution Project

By: Bailey Arndt

Industrial Innovations

                                                          Textile Industry

One of the biggest industries that grew during the industrial revolution was the textile industry. More people needed cloth, so merchants met the demands of the customers but the problem with that was that the cloth ended up costing more. So the merchants invented a machine called the Spinning Jenny that produced cloth that would cost less because it wasn’t handmade, the machine also helped produce the first textile factory.

- The first textile factory was opened in 1813, Francis Cabot Lowell was the first person to open the textile factory.

- James Hargreaves invented the "spinning jenny". The spinning jenny made production of cloth quicker. The down fall of the spinning jenny was that it took jobs away from people that originaly weaved for a living.

- In 1789 Samuel Slater learned how to run a textile company in Britian, and he later  brought all of his knowledge to America and set up the first water-powered cotton mill in Rhode Island, America.

Without the invention of the Spinning Jenny, we would not have all the choices in clothing that we have today.


The industrial revolution heavily relied on transporting goods from one place to another. During this time there were only 3 types of transportation, waterways, roads and railroads. Using waterways was the cheapest way to transport goods. With water being the easiest way, canals were opened and they made the canals wider for more and bigger boats to go through.

-        In 1807 Robert Fulton invented the first steam-powered machine.

-        Roads were improved greatly, which also made transportation easier.

-        1801 the first steam locomotive was invented.

With all the advancements that happened with transportation it became safer, easier and cheaper during the industrial revolution to transport goods. Without all of these improvements in transportation we would never have all the advancements in transportation that we have today.


During the Industrial revolution agriculture made huge advancements in how new machinery was invented and helped how many crops were produced. People came up with the idea that if you add animal fertilization to the soil that it helped the crops to grow and they also figured out that if you rotate the crops yearly that they will produce more efficiently. They also produced new crops like potatoes and clover. Metal plows were also introduced during the industrial revolution, which made farming not as time consuming as before. This also helped that farmers could now have larger fields and have more time to work in their fields. With the expanding crops and larger fields the population in the rural area started growing and that lead to more jobs.

Social Effects

Child Labor

During the industrial revolution child labor was the cheapest labor. All the factories were producing a lot of merchandise, and they needed more workers and children were the least expensive labor available. Many children were working in factories as young as 6 years old. Most children started working at the ages of 8 or 9; they worked more than 12 hours a day, even sometimes up to 19 hours a day. Even with those long days they were lucky to get an hour break.  Working all those long hours, they also worked in horrible conditions. There were plenty of accidents that led to limbs being cut off and even being killed. The treatment of the children was horrible; they would sometimes get beat or even harsher punishments. With all of long hours and horrible conditions with little or no breaks the factories paid them very little for the work that they did. Many people tried to stop child labor from happening or at the least trying to improve the working conditions and shorten the hours the children worked. Parents were forced to go against all this because:

1)     They needed the income from their children to help the families.

2)     The parents also needed to keep their  jobs; because if they went against the employers the parents along with their children would lose their jobs with the factory.

In 1833  the Factory Act passed by Parliament were set into place which stated: Children from the ages of 9-13 could only work 8 hours a day and children from the ages of 14-18 could not work more than 12 hours a day.  


Housing during the industrial revolution really depended on what your job was. If you were a merchant or an inventor you would live in nice spacious house that was furnished and if you had a top job, such as be in parliament, you had many rooms and you even had maids to do the cleaning. They had their own bathrooms and they had a sewage system.

If you were a factory worker you would most likely live in buildings that had many little rooms. In one room would be one family and those tiny rooms would be called “apartments”. Those apartments were unsanitary and they had fungus all around and were very unsanitary and unclean. If people had to use the bathroom they had a bucket and they would throw it into the street when they were done.  

Population Increase

-The Industrial Revolution populations went from the rural areas to the urban cities.

-In England, people starting moving from their farms out in the county to the factories in the cities.

- The population of Manchester England started at 25,000 people in 1772 to 303,000 people by 1850.

-In Britain there were only 3 cities with 50,000 people in1785 and that quickly changed to 31cities by 1860 with 50,000 or more people living in it.

-In 1850 Britain had become the largest nation in history to have a larger urban  population than a rural population.


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