Social Studies Common Exam Review

Democracy-Any form of government in which political power is exercised by all citizens, either directly or through their elected representatives.

Direct- (also known as puredemocracy) is a form of democracy in which people decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on) policy initiatives directly.All citizens participate in government.There are no representatives in government: The citizens vote on everything!vAll citizens can create public policy if they want to.Example: In ancient Athens, Greece, they held assemblies where citizens voted to pass laws.

Representative-(also indirectdemocracy or sephocracy) is a variety ofdemocracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.Like direct democracy, all citizens participate in government.People elect representatives who vote on laws for the citizens.Representatives answer to the people through regular elections.Representatives are also usually held accountable by a constitution. Example Canadian citizens normally elect someone to represent them in making decisions at the different levels of government. This is called a representative democracy. Countries like Canada, the United States of America and the United Kingdom all have representative democracies.

Autocracy-A form of government in which political power is controlled by one individual such as a monarch, dictator, emperor, etc.

Monarch-Rule by kings, queens, princes, and princesses… sometimes by other names, but always MONARCHS! Some modern monarchies like Spain and Japan have constitutions.

Absolute Monarch-Absolute monarchy or absolutism is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people.Countries where the monarch still maintains absolute power are Brunei, Qatar, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, the emirates comprising the UAE, and Vatican City.

Constitutional Monarch-Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a king or queen acts as Head of State. The ability to make and pass legislation resides with an elected Parliament, not with the Monarch. two most populous constitutional monarchies in the world are in Asia: Japan and Thailand.

Dictatorship-a ruler with total power over a country, typically one who has obtained power by force.Dictators have absolute control over the lives of their citizens and usually people are not allowed to voice their negative opinions. North Korea’s leader Kim Jong Il is considered a dictator.

Theocracy-a system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god. The Islamic Republic of Iran is a modern theocracy that uses the holy Islamic book, The Qur’an, as its guide.

Oligarchy-a small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution.Example china.

Anarchy-No government at all…iceland,Norway and Switzerland

Communism- a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.

  • Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.