Going West

Natalie Hirsch

8th American History

Top Ten List

#10: The XYZ Affair: It was an incident between the French and the United States Diplomats, and it ended in an undeclared war, and the French restored peace.

#9: John Adams: The first Vice President and the second President.

#8: Alien and Sedition Acts: Signed by President John Adams in 1798. Four laws passed by the Federalist, as America prepared for war with France.

#7: Eli Whitney's cotton gin: In 1792 Whitney graduated from Yale college. After his graduation he was hired to be a tutor in South Carolina via boat. Once Whitney found out his tutoring salary was being halved, he refused the job and took Greene's offer to read law at her Mulberry Grove Plantation. As Whitney had a hard time picking the seeds out of the cotton. So over the winter with Greene's help they made the cotton gin.

#6: Industrial Revolution: The transition from new manufacturing processes.

#5: Manifest Destiny: An expansion west, and or America going west.

#4: California Gold Rush of 1849: In 1848 James Wilson Marshall discovered gold while constructing a saw mill. It had little attention because no one believed that it actually happened. That is what sparked the gold rush.

#3: The Oregon Trail: It was a transportation route for emigrants traveling from Missouri to Oregon.

#2: The Mormon Trail: As the Mormon community grew rapidly where they were no one liked them so they moved west.

#1: The Louisiana Purchase: A land deal between the United States and France.


1803: Louisiana Purchase- President Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana Purchase from France for $15 million.

1830: Indian Removal Act- Congress passes a law to move Native Americans from where they are to west of the Mississippi River.

1838: Trail of Tears- The Cherokee nation was forced to walk from the eastcoast to Oklahoma.

1841: Oregon Trail- People were beginning to travel west.

1845: Manifest Destiny- John O'Sullivan uses this term to describe the western expansion of the United States.

1845: Texas becomes a U.S. state- Eventually results to the Mexican-American War.

1846: Brigham Young leads 5,000 Americans to Utah- Where they were living no one else liked their religion so they moved so there wouldn't be any conflict.

1846: Oregon Treaty- England signs it and hand over the Oregon Territory to the United States.

1848: The Gold Rush begins- James Marshell discovers Gold at Sutter's Mill. when the word is out many people leave their omes to find gold in California.

1849: Around 90,000 "Forty-niners"- People moving west.

John Adams: Biography

John Adams was born on October 30, 1735 in Quincy, Massachusetts. He was the first lawyer President. He also did not have any slaves during his time in office. When he was in office he considered the British innocent when they killed five Americans in the Boston Massacre. He was the first Vice president and the second President of the United states. Out of the first five Presidents he was one of the first Presidents to not be a Virginian. Once when Adams was in Paris and recorded how it was and some of it was embarrassing and he sent it back to America and the Congress read it and they all laughed at Adams' Journal. Adams was the first President to stay in the White House. He was married to Abigail Adams. He also died the same day as Thomas Jefferson July 4, 1826. Father of five children (Abigail, John Quincy, Charles, Thomas, and one daughter who died young.) He was also one of our Founding Fathers. Adams was the oldest of three sons.


Extra! Extra! War of 1812

June 19, 1812

286,730 U.S troops are engaged. The U.S declared this War against Great Britain recently during their war against France. This War was declared last week on June 18, 1812. There are a couple causes that they are having this war. One of them is Great Britain was preventing the U.S to trade with other foreign countries, also Great Britain tried to stop America's expansion west. Great Britain was also arming The Native Americans with guns. Those are just some of the few of the reasons out of the many reasons this war is going on. The U.S sailors are said to be better trained than the U.S soldiers. This war is costing the U.S millions of dollars! When the war starts the Canadians are said to take the United State's side so the U.S should have more on our side. The British are said to have 600 ships and the U.S has only 18 ships. The British Navy is the biggest in the world.

George Washington: Obituary

December 14, 1799

George Washington was a great man, husband, general and President. He will be dearly missed, but he will still be in our hearts. the reason of his death is two days ago George went to farming activities and it was snowing but them turned to hail then rain. When he came back from the farming activities someone suggested he change out of his wet clothes and he refused so the next morning he had a sore throat. Despite not feeling well he still went on with his work. Throughout the day his voice became more horse. In the middle of the night both George and his wife Martha woke up and George felt sick. He wouldn't let Martha leave to get help because she had just got over a cold herself, so when the day came the house slave came in to light the fire she found George having trouble breathing on his bed. Thank you.


Cookies: Recipe

Nice Cookies that will keep Good Three Months

Recipe by:
Norfolk County Heritage and Culture
Source: Nothing More Comforting: Canada’s Heritage Food by Dorothy Duncan


  • 9 cups flour
  • 3-1/2 cups butter
  • 5 cups sugar
  • Large coffee cup of water with a heaping teaspoon of pearlash (substitute baking soda) dissolved in it

Rub your butter and sugar into the flour, (add) great teaspoon of caraway (seeds).

This old recipe does not give directions, but I have learned from experience that it should be mixed well, small amounts rolled into a ball and flattened very thin on a buttered cookie sheet with a fork, and baked in a moderate oven of 350°F for about 10 minutes or until golden brown. The flavour of the caraway is unmistakable in them.

NOTE: These cookies do indeed keep for three months as long as they are kept in a dry cool place. Pearlash or potash (potassium carbonate) is a combination of wood ash and water boiled until all the liquid has evapourated. It was used historically (1790s to 1840s) as a leavening agent in baking.


By the Numbers

286,730 U.S troops are engaged in the war of 1812

90,000 "Forty-niners."

Brigham Young leads 5,000 Americans to Utah.

President Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana Purchase from France for $15 million.

The war of 1812 costed around $105 million.

3 French people were involved in the XYZ affair.

12 days of fighting in the Alamo.

3 sections during sectionalism.

12,000 pilgrims looking for their religious freedom.

3 government braches.

The war of 1812: Map

There were 286,730 U.S troops were involved, and 2,260 deaths. The U.S declared this war against Great Britain when Great Britain was in war with France. The war was declared June 18, 1812. The Treaty of Ghent ended the war signed on December 24, 1814. The final battle was fought in New Orleans in 1815. Lundy's Lane was considered one of the most bloodiest battles out of the War of 1812. Enraged by the burning of York the British burned down Washington D.C. The War of 1812 gave the U.S our national anthem "Star-Spangled Banner". In some of the battles the soldiers refused to fight. The War of 1812 has been called the forgotten war, between the Revolution and the Civil War. Some historians argue that the war was a complete waste of resources and lives. They say that it wasn't necessary. The British Navy was one of the largest Navy's in the world. The British had 600 ships, but the United states only had 18 ships. Finally the war lasted 32 months.

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