Cameron Whitcher

#BrainCellsInUse

Cell:the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically consist of a single cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.

Beyond size, the main structural diffrence between plant and animal cell lie in a few additional structures found in plant cells. These structures include: chloroplasts, the cell wall, and vacuoles.

Mucle cell: The two main functions of a muscle cell are to produce movement through force and to maintain posture.

Nerve Cell:Your nervous system contains millions of nerve cells, called neurons. Neurons are highly specialised to transmit messages from one part of your body to another. All neurons have a cell body and one or more fibres.

  1. Bone Cell:One function of the osteocyte might be the remodeling of the bone through growths of new arms on the cell. It is also known that osteocytes can secrete growth factors which activate lining cells or stimulate osteoblasts.

Beyond size, the main structural diffrence between plant and animal cell lie in a few additional structures found in plant cells. These structures include: chloroplasts, the cell wall, and vacuoles.

There are two kidneys, each about the size of a fist, located on either side of the spine at the lowest level of the rib cage. Each kidney contains up to a million functioning units called nephrons. A nephron consists of a filtering unit of tiny blood vessels called a glomerulus attached to a tubule. When blood enters the glomerulus, it is filtered and the remaining fluid then passes along the tubule. In the tubule, chemicals and water are either added to or removed from this filtered fluid according to the body's needs, the final product being the urine we excrete.


The kidneys perform their life-sustaining job of filtering and returning to the bloodstream about 200 quarts of fluid every 24 hours. About two quarts are removed from the body in the form of urine, and about 198 quarts are recovered. The urine we excrete has been stored in the bladder for anywhere from 1 to 8 hours.

The critical regulation of the body's salt, potassium and acid content is performed by the kidneys. The kidneys also produce hormones that affect the function of other organs. For example, a hormone produced by the kidneys stimulates red blood cell production. Other hormones produced by the kidneys help regulate blood pressure and control calcium metabolism.

The lungs' main function is to help oxygen from the air we breathe enter red blood cells. Red blood cells then carry oxygen around the body to be used in the cells found in our organs and tissues. The lungs also help the body to get rid of CO2 gas when we breathe out. There are a number of other jobs carried out by the lungs that include:

  • Changing the pH of blood (whether the blood is more acid or alkali) by increasing or decreasing the amount of CO2 in the body.
  • Filtering out small blood clots formed in veins.
  • Filtering out small gas bubbles that may occur in the bloodstream.
  • Converting a chemical in the blood called angiotensin I to angiotensin II. These chemicals are important in the control of blood pressure.                                                                                                                                                                                                       The alveoli are located in the respiratory zone of the lungs, at the distal termination of the alveolar ducts and atria. These air sacs are the forming and termination point of the respiratory track. They provide total surface area of about 100 m2.  A typical pair of human lungs contain about 700 million alveoli,  producing 70m2 of surface area. Each alveolus is wrapped in a fine mesh of capillaries covering about 70% of its area. An adult alveolus has an average diameter of 200 micrometres, with an increase in diameter during inhalation. The alveoli consist of an epithelial layer and extracellular matrix surrounded by capillaries. In some alveolar walls there are pores between alveoli called Pores of Kohn. The alveoli contain some collagen and elastic fibers. The elastic fibers allow the alveoli to stretch as they are filled with air during inhalation. They then spring back during exhalation in order to expel the carbon dioxide-rich air.

Your digestive system is uniquely constructed to perform its specialized function of turning food into the energy you need to survive and packaging the residue for waste disposal.  

The mouth is the beginning of the digestive tract; and, in fact, digestion starts here when taking the first bite of food. Chewing breaks the food into pieces that are more easily digested, while saliva mixes with food to begin the process of breaking it down into a form your body can absorb and use.  

Located in your throat near your trachea (windpipe), the esophagus receives food from your mouth when you swallow. By means of a series of muscular contractions called peristalsis, the esophagus delivers food to your stomach.  

The stomach is a hollow organ, or "container," that holds food while it is being mixed with enzymes that continue the process of breaking down food into a usable form. Cells in the lining of the stomach secrete a strong acid and powerful enzymes that are responsible for the breakdown process. When the contents of the stomach are sufficiently processed, they are released into the small intestine.  

Made up of three segments — the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum — the small intestine is a 22-foot long muscular tube that breaks down food using enzymes released by the pancreas and bile from the liver. Peristalsis also is at work in this organ, moving food through and mixing it with digestive secretions from the pancreas and liver. The duodenum is largely responsible for the continuous breaking-down process, with the jejunum and ileum mainly responsible for absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream.  Contents of the small intestine start out semi-solid, and end in a liquid form after passing through the organ. Water, bile, enzymes, and mucous contribute to the change in consistency. Once the nutrients have been absorbed and the leftover-food residue liquid has passed through the small intestine, it then moves on to the large intestine, or colon.  

The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum, the first segment of the small intestine. These enzymes break down protein, fats, and carbohydrates. The pancreas also makes insulin, secreting it directly into the bloodstream. Insulin is the chief hormone for metabolizing sugar.

The liver has multiple functions, but its main function within the digestive system is to process the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine. Bile from the liver secreted into the small intestine also plays an important role in digesting fat. In addition, the liver is the body’s chemical "factory." It takes the raw materials absorbed by the intestine and makes all the various chemicals the body needs to function. The liver also detoxifies potentially harmful chemicals. It breaks down and secretes many drugs.

The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile, and then releases it into the duodenum to help absorb and digest fats.  

The colon is a 6-foot long muscular tube that connects the small intestine to the rectum. The large intestine is made up of the cecum, the ascending (right) colon, the transverse (across) colon, the descending (left) colon, and the sigmoid colon, which connects to the rectum. The appendix is a small tube attached to the cecum. The large intestine is a highly specialized organ that is responsible for processing waste so that emptying the bowels is easy and convenient.  Stool, or waste left over from the digestive process, is passed through the colon by means of peristalsis, first in a liquid state and ultimately in a solid form. As stool passes through the colon, water is removed. Stool is stored in the sigmoid (S-shaped) colon until a "mass movement" empties it into the rectum once or twice a day. It normally takes about 36 hours for stool to get through the colon. The stool itself is mostly food debris and bacteria. These bacteria perform several useful functions, such as synthesizing various vitamins, processing waste products and food particles, and protecting against harmful bacteria. When the descending colon becomes full of stool, or feces, it empties its contents into the rectum to begin the process of elimination.  

The rectum (Latin for "straight") is an 8-inch chamber that connects the colon to the anus. It is the rectum's job to receive stool from the colon, to let the person know that there is stool to be evacuated, and to hold the stool until evacuation happens. When anything (gas or stool) comes into the rectum, sensors send a message to the brain. The brain then decides if the rectal contents can be released or not. If they can, the sphincters relax and the rectum contracts, disposing its contents. If the contents cannot be disposed, the sphincter contracts and the rectum accommodates so that the sensation temporarily goes away.

The circulatory system is made up of vessels and muscles that help control the flow of blood around the body - this is called circulation. The main parts of the system are the arteries, capillaries, heart and veins. As the blood begins to circulate, it leaves the heart from the left ventricle and it passes to the aorta. The aorta is the largest artery in the body. The blood that leaves the aorta is full of oxygen. It is important for the cells in the brain and body to do their work. On its way back to the heart, blood travels through a system of veins, as it reaches the lungs, carbon dioxide is removed from the blood and replaced by the oxygen that we have inhaled through our lungs.  

The heart has 2 sides, the right and the left. On each side we have the right and the left atrium and ventricles. The reason for this is because the heart wants to separate the deoxygenated blood and oxygenated blood. Basically the blood after going around your body enters the right atrium and passes through the right ventricle. Then the blood travels to the lungs to get more oxygen, then to the left atrium and to the left ventricle to the body.

Blood vessels are connected to the heart; these vessels are all around in our body. These vessels help us transporting blood to different organs and provide them with needed nutrients. There are 5 different types of blood vessels: Aorta, Arteries, Capillary, Venule, Veins.

The arterioles are basically the arteries but further away from the heart, and as further they are from the heart the smaller they get. Therefore these small arteries are called arterioles. They share many similar features with the arteries, like thick walls for their size, strong and high percentage of smooth muscle.

The veins are elastic blood vessels that transport blood from various regions back to the heart.

Blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the capillaries back to the vein

The capillaries are extremely small blood vessel; they are so small that red blood can only travel through them in single file. The capillaries are located within the tissue of the body, it transports blood from arteries to vein.

The blood is very important in our body; it has a very important role in the circulatory system because blood acts as carriers that deliver oxygen and nutrient to the

organs

The cells of the human body require a constant stream of oxygen to stay alive. The respiratory system provides oxygen to the body’s cells while removing carbon dioxide, a waste product that can be lethal if allowed to accumulate. There are 3 major parts of the respiratory system: the airway, the lungs, and the muscles of respiration. The airway, which includes the nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles, carries air between the lungs and the body’s exterior.  The lungs act as the functional units of the respiratory system by passing oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. Finally, the muscles of respiration, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, work together to act as a pump, pushing air into and out of the lungs during breathing.

Upper respiratory tract: Composed of the nose, the pharynx, and the larynx, the organs of the upper respiratory tract are located outside the chest cavity.

  • Nasal cavity: Inside the nose, the sticky mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity traps dust particles, and tiny hairs called cilia help move them to the nose to be sneezed or blown out.
  • Sinuses: These air-filled spaces along side the nose help make the skull lighter.
  • Pharynx: Both food and air pass through the pharynx before reaching their appropriate destinations. The pharynx also plays a role in speech.
  • Larynx: The larynx is essential to human speech.

Lower respiratory tract: Composed of the trachea, the lungs, and all segments of the bronchial tree (including the alveoli), the organs of the lower respiratory tract are located inside the chest cavity.

  • Trachea: Located just below the larynx, the trachea is the main airway to the lungs.
  • Lungs: Together the lungs form one of the body’s largest organs. They’re responsible for providing oxygen to capillaries and exhaling carbon dioxide.
  • Bronchi: The bronchi branch from the trachea into each lung and create the network of intricate passages that supply the lungs with air.
  • Diaphragm: The diaphragm is the main respiratory muscle that contracts and relaxes to allow air into the lungs.

Upper respiratory tract: Composed of the nose, the pharynx, and the larynx, the organs of the upper respiratory tract are located outside the chest cavity.

  • Nasal cavity: Inside the nose, the sticky mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity traps dust particles, and tiny hairs called cilia help move them to the nose to be sneezed or blown out.
  • Sinuses: These air-filled spaces along side the nose help make the skull lighter.
  • Pharynx: Both food and air pass through the pharynx before reaching their appropriate destinations. The pharynx also plays a role in speech.
  • Larynx: The larynx is essential to human speech.

Lower respiratory tract: Composed of the trachea, the lungs, and all segments of the bronchial tree (including the alveoli), the organs of the lower respiratory tract are located inside the chest cavity.

  • Trachea: Located just below the larynx, the trachea is the main airway to the lungs.
  • Lungs: Together the lungs form one of the body’s largest organs. They’re responsible for providing oxygen to capillaries and exhaling carbon dioxide.
  • Bronchi: The bronchi branch from the trachea into each lung and create the network of intricate passages that supply the lungs with air.
  • Diaphragm: The diaphragm is the main respiratory muscle that contracts and relaxes to allow air into the lungs.

******The respiratory system, circulatory system, and digestive system work together because the digestive system breaks down food into energy that is carried through the circulatory system to provide energy to the cells of the lungs and heart in order to make them work.  The lungs and heart carry oxygen to the cells of the body and organs in order for them to function.

Paramecium are members of the phylum Ciliophora. They share many common characteristics with the rest of their phylum, but are also unique. For example, their shape is quite different from that of many other Ciliophora. They are also famous for their predator-prey relationship with Didinim. Paramecium are known for their avoidance behavior. If an encounters a negative stimulus, it is capable of rotating up to 360 degrees to find an escape route.

Paramecium are ciliated unicellular organisms. The cilia cover the entire body. Like other ciliates, they are multinucleated.  Paramecium may eject trichocyts when they detect food, in order to better capture their prey. These trichocyts are filled with proteins. Trichocysts can also be deployed for self-defense.

Paramecium are heterotrophs. Their common form of prey is bacteria. A single organism has the ability to eat 5,000 bacteria a day. They are also known to feed on yeasts, algae, and small protozoa. Paramecium capture their prey through phagocytosis.

Paramecium are capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is the most common, and this is accomplished by the organism dividing transversely. The macro-nucleus elongates and splits. Under ideal conditions, Parameciumcan reproduce asexually two or three times a day. Normally, Paramecium only reproduce sexually under stressful conditions. This occurs via conjugation, a process of gamete agglutination and fusion. Two Paramecium join together, forming a conjugation bridge. Each Paramecium has a diploid micro-nucleus that undergoes meiosis creating four haploid  micro-nuclei Three of the resulting nuclei disintegrate, the fourth undergoes mitosis. Daughter nuclei fuse and the cells separate. The old macro-nucleus disintegrates and a new one is formed. This process is usually followed by asexual reproduction.

Comment Stream

2 years ago
0

There are two kidneys, each about the size of a fist, located on either side of the spine at the lowest level of the rib cage. Each kidney contains up to a million functioning units called nephrons. A nephron consists of a filtering unit of tiny blood vessels called a glomerulus attached to a tubule. When blood enters the glomerulus, it is filtered and the remaining fluid then passes along the tubule. In the tubule, chemicals and water are either added to or removed from this filtered fluid according to the body's needs, the final product being the urine we excrete.

The kidneys perform their life-sustaining job of filtering and returning to the bloodstream about 200 quarts of fluid every 24 hours. About two quarts are removed from the body in the form of urine, and about 198 quarts are recovered. The urine we excrete has been stored in the bladder for anywhere from 1 to 8 hours.

2 years ago
0

The critical regulation of the body's salt, potassium and acid content is performed by the kidneys. The kidneys also produce hormones that affect the function of other organs. For example, a hormone produced by the kidneys stimulates red blood cell production. Other hormones produced by the kidneys help regulate blood pressure and control calcium metabolism.