Types of Bonds:
Ionic, Covalent, Metallic
A chemical bond is a mutual attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that bind the atoms together. Potential energy is lowered in this process whcih is favored in nature becasue it is more stable.
How to Tell Which Bond They are in a Lab
Covalent bond- Soluble, low melting point (able to melt from a Bunsen Burner), does not conduct electricity.
Metallic bond- Not soluble, high melting point (not able to melt from a Bunsen Burner), conducts electricity in all states
Ionic bond- Soluble, high melting point (not able to melt from a Bunsen Burner), Solid doesn't conduct electricity, Liquid and Dissolved conducts electricity
What Goes on in Each Bond
Covalent- Nonmetal+Nonmetal bond, occurs when electrons are shared by atoms, bond to create a full valence electron shell (8 electrons), Nonpolar Covalent Bonds share electrons equally, Polar Covalent Bonds share electrons unequally
Metallic- Metal+Metal bond, formed from the attraction between metal atoms that are delocalized and the surrounding sea of electrons, semi-vact d and p orbitals allows overlap and electron roaming
Ionic- Metal+Nonmetal bond, share valence electrons, formed from electrical attration between positive and negative ions (cations and anions) that are added so + and - charges are equal amounts, create crysalline solids , minimizes potential energy, energy relased when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions (Lattice energy)