Ancient Ghana is not related to Ghana today. Most information documented about Ghana comes from Arabic writing. Ghana was the first African civilization to gain independence from the Europeans. A forty year battle caused the citizens to have pride and optimism when they finally became independent. They stayed away from civil battle, thus growing in every other category. In the beginning Ghana was known as one of the richest, and so was there king. This was all due to the gold around them used for trade. Though trade was huge for Ghana, most of the citizens were farmers.

Flag of Ghana

Geography of Ghana

Ghana is located in the south eastern part of Africa. Ghana lies south of the Sahara desert and were near three major rivers. This made transportation easy. Ghana was surrounded by many independent kingdoms. There were few mountains in the area, but many hills. This made expansion on their country easy. There was a lot of tropical vegetation around which helped with the importance of farming in the area. The capital Kumbi was located on the edge of the Saharan and was very important during trade. Ghana being in such a easy access location, it made trade really big in the area. They were near water ports such as the Mediterranean and were also near other countries. During this time, people of Ghana discovered the camel which helped them expand their knowledge further north. There location and resources helped them become rich and successful. Other countries were jealous of Ghana for a long time.   

Ghana is in purple. This map shows how Ghana is surrounded by many places and oppurtunities

Religion of Ghana

The two main religions that spread across Ghana were Islam and Christianity. The Islamic religion was mainly in the north while Christianity was everywhere else. For the majority of the time both religions got along well. As the country began to modernize the Islamic faith began to have problems. They wanted to stick to tradition and their older values while the rest of the country was moving on. Christianity started to become stronger and more open about their beliefs. Many missionary schools were open and this led to a major problem. Muslims refused to attend these schools therefor, Christians were the only people getting the religion needed and wanted. So, this led to them getting the better jobs and felt superior to Muslims. This broke out to many arguments and later on Christianity becoming the more dominant religion. Though they didn't believe in the same teachings they were both monotheistic religions. They read different books but both believed in only one God.  

Art in Ghana

Ghana was not normally known for art during there peaking time. There was not a huge variety of art in Ghana due to all of the agriculture and trade, which kept the citizens busy. The three main ways you see art in Ghana is weaving, woodworking, and making jewelry with gold. They also tended to work with clay and built clay sculptures of things such as animals or important people. These pieces showed a high level of respect to whomever or whatever they were creating. They used the weaving to make things such as baskets. Woodworking was sometimes also used to make sculptures of the people. Gold being a high demand, Ghana citizens made Jewelry to sell in order to have a variety. The sculptures really showed how much people valued their country and high authority in the country.

Example of a statue made of a king to show his authority.

Politics in Ghana

Ghana's original government was founded under England. When separated Ghana decided they wanted a king. Ghana's king served as the commander and chief of the military. He set up his entire military. He also appointed all of the other high jobs in the government. The Sonikes were the most powerful tribe Ghana had ever seen. They fought with Berber for a long time to keep Ghana in the power of their kind. Eventually, they lost but the Sonikes were the only tribe to keep Berber in battle for so long. The king helped create this army. Before all of these battles the king of Ghana worked with trade. He focused on the trade of golds and salts and made sure the correct routes were in place. The king made Ghana one of the richest early African civilizations.


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