By; Stephanie Fuller
The Nile is the largest river in the world , flowing from the South to the North . Also lower Egypt is more northern then Upper Egypt . The Nile river is important because there is fresh water and fertile grounds there . Also the Nile river was a good source of water because it was surround by hot , dry and sand so lots of people came to the Nile river and lived near it too . The Nile river provided natural irrigation for the farmers . The Nile river ran through steep hills . But there were also wide areas of land around the deep bends of the river .
Stable Food Supply
The Nile river provided water and fresh fish to catch. The wildlife in the Nile region included geese , hippos , crocodiles , giraffes , fish , duck , and ostriches. Vegetation was very rare in the desert but plenty near the Nile . The Nile provided a useful plants including reed ad tough water plants called papyrus . People wove reed into baskets and roofs for there huts . Papyrus was made into ropes and paper. The rich farmland was good for growing weat and barley .
Pharaohs - The Pharaohs were Egypt's supreme ruler . Egyptians religion strengthens the Pharaohs authority . Pharaohs were beilved to be gods , and their word was the law.
Goverment Officials - Below the Pharaohs were the next two the highest classes in the social structure were the Goverment Officals . They carried out the orders of the Pharaoh . Most officals came from a noble or high rank . They were high in power and they enjoyed high equity life .
Priest - Priest were a powerful group because religion touched every part of peoples daily lives . Priests were in charge of the temples and religion rituals . They over saw important ceremonies surrounding death and burriouls .
Scribes - The scribe held a responsible part in the social structure . They recorded information for goverment and religious leaders . It took many years of schooling to become a scribe .
Artisan - The artisan occupied the layer of the social pyrimaid . This group included crafts people like carrpenders ,mental workers , painters , sculpters , and stone carvers . Artisans were highly skilled but they had little social status .
Peasants - Peasants were the largest social class . Peasants worked the land providing the Egyptians with steady food supply . When not working on the farms they would work on the Pharaohs massive building projects .
Religion played a big part in the lives of the Egyptians.They believed in a variety of gods and goddess .
Ra- Ra was the god of the sun and the most impotent to the Ancient Egyptians. Ra was drawn as a man with a hawk head and a headdress with a sun disk .
Isis - Isis was the mother goddess . It was though that she would protect and help the people in need . She was drawn as a woman with a headdress in the shape if a thrown .
Osiris - Osiris was the ruler of the under world and the god of the dead .He was the husband of Isis and father of Horus . Osiris was drawn as a mummified man with a feathered headdress .
Horus - Horus was the god of the sky . Horus was the son of Osiris and Isis. He was drawn as a man with the head of a hawk . Pharaohs or rulers thought that to be living version of Horus .
Thoth - Thoth was the god of the knowledge . He blessed the Egyptians with writing . He also blessed them with medicines and mathematics . He was also the god of the moon. Thoth is drawn as a man with an ibis bird head . Sometimes he was represented as a baboon .
System of Government
The pharaoh Khufu ruled for about 2251 - 2528 B.C.E . Today hes known for the builders of a famous pyramid . He was a hard and cruel ruler . Others said that he was powerful but kind . He kept strict control over Egypt`s food supply . He over saw the harvest . Khufu declared himself as a God .
Senuspent ruled for about 1971 -1926 B.C.E . He was a strong leader who ruled a stable unified Egypt . Some of the greatest works in Egyptian literature were written during his time . His greatest accomplishment is in the religious architecture.
Hatsheput ruled Egypt for about 1473 - 1458 B.C.E . Hatsheput was the first female Pharaoh one of her greatest accomplishments were her rise to be Pharaoh . Never before a women had been a Pharaoh . At first she shared her power with male relatives . However she soon took over as a solo ruler . She dressed as a male to show respect to the male Pharaohs .
Ramses ll ruled from about 12900 -1224 B.C.E . He is the best known for the military leadership and for building numerous monuments . He had over 100 wives and over 100 children too . When he was 10 he was the captain of the military . He constantly threatened Egypt`s northern borders . His best battle when he created the worlds 1st peace treaty . He had 4 giant statues of a Ramses framed in front of the main temple .
The Egyptians are most famous for their giant sculptures . Some examples of this include the Great Sphinx of Giza and the statues of Ramses ll at the Abu temples . In Ancient Egypt the tombs walls of the rich and powerful were often filled with paintings . These paintings were to help the person in the afterlife . They often deputed the person buried passing into the afterlife . They would show the person a happy afterlife . They also carved smaller , more natural sculptures .
Advances in Technology
Egyptians learned how to make durable sheets of parchment from papyrus plant . It was used for important documents and religious text . They had wide variety of medicines . Some were a little strange for example they used honey and human brains to cure a eye infection . Also Egyptians wore makeup both men and women . They made a dark eye makeup called kohi made from soot and other minerals .
The Egyptians used pictures and symbols and words they are called hieroglyphics . Its a very old form of writing that they started using as early as 3000 B.C.E . Hieroglyphics was a very complicated way of writing involving 1000s of words and symbols . Some of the symbols represent sound like our letters and others representing entire words . Since writing in hieroglyphics was so complicate took years of schooling and practice to be able to do it . The people who trained to write were called Scribes . They would start training at a very young age of 6 or 7 .