Lesson 1- Vascular Plants

Chapter 5: Plants

There are three main parts of a vascular plant- the roots, the stem, and the leaves.   


Things in the root- epidermis, xylem, and phloem. The epidermis is the thin outer layer of the root. Xylem are tubes that carry minerals and water throughout the plant.Phloem are tubes that carry glucose (sugar).


Types of stems- woody and herbaceous. Woody stems are rigid and not flexible. An example would be a maple tree. Herbaceous stems are green and flexible. An example of this would be a sunflower. Some stems grow underground, like the white potato.


Things in leaves-the stoma and the guard cells. The stomata are little holes on the surface of the leaf that let water and gases go in and out of the leaf. The guard cells are the ones who open and close the stomata. The loss of water from a leaf is called transpiration.

Lesson 2-Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Photosynthesis: requires carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight, and produces glucose and oxygen, this takes place in the chlorophyll.

Chemical equation:

Cellular Respiration: requires oxygen and glucose, to produce carbon dioxide and water, this takes place in the mitochondria(the powerhouse of the cell ).

Chemical equation:

Lesson 3: Angiosperms and Gymnosperms

Angiosperms: They grow flowers and their seeds are sometimes incased in a hard shell. An example would be an oak tree.

Gymnosperms: They do not grow flowers but grow cones. An example would be a white pine tree.

Growth: Plants require certain conditions and the right environment. All plants need water and oxygen to survive. Some plants can grow in very harsh conditions, but most can not. Plants also require certain temperatures. Not all plants produce by seeds. Some plants, produce spores. An example of this plant would be a fern.

Tropism: This is a plant's chemical response to their environment. Some examples are phototropism, geotropism, and thigmotropism.


Please write at least 1 paragraph about the differences and similarities of angiosperms and gymnosperms. For the your email box you can type in my email: