Waxing Moon - The moon at any time after a new moon and before a full moon

Waning Moon - The moon at any time after a full moon and before a new moon

Gibbous Moon - The phase of the moon when it is over half illuminated but, less than fully illuminated.

Crescent Moon- The phase of moon when it is less than half illuminated, but not fully unilluminated

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                  Waxing Moon Pattern

New Moon - Waxing Crescent - First Quarter - Waxing Gibbous - Full Moon


                                Waning Moon Pattern

Full Moon - Waning Gibbous - Third Quarter - Waning Crescent - New Moon


Lunar Cycle - This refers to the Moon's continuous orbit around Earth. The Lunar Cycle is about 29.5 days.

Moon Eclipses #eclipses

Copernicus was the person who proposed the Sun was the center of the Solar System.

The Earth has seasons because it is tilted on its axis

In Winter the Sun is closer to Earth, but it is colder because the part of Earth you live on is tilted away from the Sun, making the Sunlight travel greater distances and having it more spread out.

Eclipses don't occur every month because the Moon is not normally in the ecliptic plane, and it has to be a full or new moon for an eclipse to occur, so there is a slim chance that the moon will be in the ecliptic plane during a full or new moon.

The Earth has Day and night because of its rotation on its axis, when the part of Earth you live on is facing the Sun its Day, when its facing away its Night.

Equinox - There are two equinoxes a year, the vernal and autumnal equinoxes, on these days Day and Night are equal.

Solstice - There are two solstices a year, the Winter and Summer Solstices, the summer solstice is the day that has the most hours of daylight in the year, and the winter solstice is the day that has the least hours of daylight in the year.

Plate Tectonics #platetectonics

Alfred Wegener was a scientist who studied meteorology, was a geophysicist and polar researcher. He was known for his famous continental drift theory.

Convergent Boundary - When two or more tectonic plates move toward each other and collide.

Divergent Boundary - When two tectonic plates are moving away from each other.

Transform Boundary - When two or more tectonic plates slide past each other.

The Juan De Fuca plate is just off the coast of Washington.

The Cascade Mountains were formed by a subduction zone where the Juan De Fuca plate sinks below the North American plate, which formed the Cascade Mountains.

Convection currents are made when hotter, less dense liquids rise above colder, more dense liquids and the colder liquids heat up, then rise above the originally hot liquids that have cooled down by moving away from the heat source, and this continues around in a circular motion. This plays a role in plate tectonics because convection currents occuring in the mantle move the tectonic plates.

Rift Zone - A large area of fractures and faults that are formed by two tectonic plates moving away from each other.

Subduction Zone - When one plate sinks below another plate on a convergent boundary, which often creates volcanoes and mountains, and can cause earthquakes.

The channeled scablands were formed when ice from the ice age melted, creating a series of floods which eroded Earth's surface and took some rock as far as the Pacific Ocean.

Rocks And Roles in Earth's History

Sedimentary Rock- Rocks formed by the deposition of rocks at Earth's serface and within bodies of water

Metamorphic Rock - Rocks that are formed from other rocks when they are exposed to heat and pressure, which causes a chemical change.

Igneous Rock -  Rocks formed from the cooling and solidification of lava or magma.

Examples of each rock type - Sedimentary - Sandstone - Metamorphic - Marble - Igneous - Diorite

Stratification - Layering of sedimentary and igneous rocks on the Earth's serface formed from lava flows and volcanic fragmental deposits

Age of landforms can be estimated from the thickness and number of layers, as well as fossils because the thicker the layers are it indicates more age as well as more layers make the landform older, fossils found can help if it is an extinct creature that existed a long time ago which can help determine age.

Earthquakes and erosion could cause older layers of sedimentary rock to be on top of younger layers, because the earthquake or erosion could have flipped it over.

Organisms shape landforms because when they die, their shells are left to accumulate and can help to form unique limestone deposits.

Cells #braincellsinuse

Cell - The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism.

Plant cells have a cell wall made of cellulose, which allow it to absorb liquid, it also  produces food by photosynthesis. Animal cells have no cell wall, eat other cells, have lysosomes and can form a variety of shapes.

Plant cell's cell wall's main function is to provide support, it also allows the plant to absorb water which it uses for photo synthesis.

Animal cell's cell membrane allows some nutrients to pass through it so they can transport neccessary materials across the body.

The function of muscle cells is to produce force and motion.

The function of nerve cells is to transmit messages across the body.

The function of blood cells is to carry neccessary materials and nutrients around the body and to help prevent diseases.

The eye contains muscle tissues that open and close eyelids allowing other tissues to apply moisture to the eye and then allowing the eye to see again.

Digestive system - Starts at mouth, travels through esophagus to stomach,then starts to get broken down in the stomach, goes through small intestine where the pancreas, gallbladder and liver work to break down and process its nutrients, then the colon (large intestine) connects the small intestine to the rectum, where it sends signals to the brain that it is about to leave through the anus as waste.

Circulatory system - Transports necessary materials throughout the body, the heart pumps blood into arteries that move around the body, then it is transported back to the heart through veins when the materials are depleted.

Respiratory System - The respiratory system begins when air is breathed in through the mouth or nose, then it is funneled into the pharynx and the epiglottis makes sure it goes into the wind pipe, where the muscles of respiration allow the air to enter the lungs.

The circulatory system interacts with the digestive and respiratory systems by taking minerals and nutrients from the food in the digestive system, and oxygen from the respiratory system and transporting these materials throughout the body.

Digestive System
Circulatory System
Respiratory System

My observations on this are that it looks like it has all of the necessary components of a living organism condensed into a single cell. The paramecium is different from animals and plants because it only has one cell, whereas animals and plants have countless cells. Paramecium live in water and move around using the cilia around the outside of the body, they can eat food through the mouth pore, and can reproduce by binary fission, where they basically just split in half and form two parameciums.

Genetics #Heredity

1. G - Dominant g - Recessive

2. 3 Green and 1 Yellow

3. 2 - GG, and gg

4. 1 - Gg

5. Asexual reproduction can only have one outcome because there is only one organism to get genes from, whereas sexual reproduction can have multiple outcomes because there are two organisms to get the genes from, making sexual offspring more diverse than asexual reproduction.

6. Any alteration in the function or structure of an organism, that makes the organism better fitted to survive and reproduce in its environment.

7. Any process of formation, growth or development.

8. A class of individuals having some common characteristics or qualities.

9. The basic physical unit of heredity.

10. Of, relating to, or produced from genes.

11. When two parents contibute genetic information to create unique offspring.

12. When a single parent produces offspring identitcal to that parent.

Genetic variation is important for survival because some people can have resistances to differant things, so if an outbreak of a disease or other crisis occurs, some people who have resistances to that certain outcome may survive, and that species can continue to live.

Genetic Variation

Ecosysytems #EcoFlow

5 types of ecosystems -

Tropical Rain Forest - little variation in temperature with lots of rainfall and moisture along with more species than other biomes.

Deserts - Deserts are dry areas with little vegetation, and scattered grasses

Temperate Grasslands - Areas with rich soil and tall dense grasses.

Deciduous forests - Forest area with warm summers and cold winters.

Tundra - Open areasa with lots of wind, dry and always frozen ground.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A dead squirrel slowly got broken down by decomposers.

The apples on a tree were eaten by a consumer.

Many differant animals can live in the same ecosystem.

The berry bush is a producer as it makes it's own food using photosynthesis.

Humans are on the top of the food chain as they eat almost everything, whereas plants are on the bottum as they don't eat anything, but they get eaten by other things.

Johnny was bionic, until he chased a butterfly off a cliff and died.

Johnny is now abiotic, as he died by chasing a butterfly off a cliff.

Plants and animals go through adaptation as they change to better fit their environment.


9. What are some examples of biotic factors in a wetland ecosystem?

Flowers, water, butterflies, trees, and competiton are all examples of biotic factors.

10. What are some abiotic factors in a wetland ecosystem?

Sunlight, air, temperature and soil are some examples of abiotic factors.

11. Find an example of a wetland ecosystem food chain

Algae --> water boatman --> diving beetle --> dragonfly --> frog --> pelican

12. Energy enters the ecosystem food chain in what form?

light energy from the sun.

13. What do the arrows in question # 11 represent?

the arrows point to the consumer that eats the current organism.

14. What might happen to the food chain if one element were to be eliminated (by disease or habitat loss, for example)?

There would be a shortage of food for a consumer which would cause that consumer to die from starvation, also the thing that the organism that is missing would have eaten would start to increase in population since nothing hunted it anymore, the increase in its population would cause another shortage of food because there would be more of that organism to feed, which would cause them to die from starvation.

15. How do wetlands positively affect water quality?

Wetlands help filter out sediment and keep nutrients, they also retain stream water and ground water in dry seasons.

16. How do wetlands offer flood protection?

Wetlands act like a sponge as they can hold lots of water and release it slowly.

17. How do wetlands protect shoreline from erosion?

Wetland plants help prevent erosion by holding soil in place, wetlands also reduce erosion by absorbing the energy of waves and by breaking up the flow of streams and currents.

18. How do wetlands provide habitat for wildlife?

Inland wetlands act as breeding, living, resting grounds, as well as areas that some animals raise their young.

19. What other benefits do wetlands offer?

Wetlands provide food for people through the animals that live there and the plants that can grow there, also it provides materials, such as timber, for human use.

Food Web
energy flow through ecosystem