England in the high middle ages
Riley Hopper & Kimberly Mcdonald
EQ: How do Leaders affect their political structures?
the Norman conquest
- Brought England into a new age that named England as "Norman England"
- The Norman conquest of England was the 11th-century breach and pursuit of England by an army of Norman, Breton, and French soldiers coerced by Duke William II of Normandy, later known as William the Conqueror.
- William's affirmation to the English throne copied from his familial relationship with King Edward who had died and was succeeded by his brother brother-in-law Harold Godwinson.
- The Norwegian king Harald Hardrada penetrated northern England in September 1066, was triumphant at the Battle of Fulford, but Harold defeated and killed him at the Battle of Stamford Bridge.
- William's force conquered Harold, who was killed in the plight.
- To control his new kingdom, William gave lands to his followers and built castles imposing military strong points throughout the land. Other effects of the conquest included the court and government, the introduction of Norman French as the language of the high society, and changes in the form of the upper classes, as William dictated that lands to be held directly from the king.
- Henry II had created the common law
- His mindset towards France, Ireland, Wales, and Scotland will define England's connections with its neighbors for centuries.
- He established the grand jury system for investigating recent crimes
- He established a jury of likeness to decide which cases should be tried
- Ordered that all free men should keep arms and be prepared to defend the country
- Trial was by ordeal until 1215; male laborers underwent trial by water; men that were free and all women, went to trial by hot iron. There was also trial by engagement - "wager of battle." Afflictions were supposedly a way to allow God to affirm his judgment, but the Church's discontent led to their replacement with trial by jury.
- Henry II's system allowed for strong central control over the disposition of justice.
- The supremacy of Henry II was important for providing the balance that made possible the endowment of secure property rights. Another principle established about this time was that a person could sell or give away land. This meant that England matured an active market in land, which expanded social mobility and economic change.
Edward I: Representative Government: Magna Carta:
- Took place in 1215
- Henry III was father
- Had an arranged marriage (9 year old) at 15
- Survived a murder attempt by a shiite
- Had a lot of military experience
- Henry II makes laws to protect tenants against their lords. It allows them to look to the lords superior, the king.
- The disagreement of the tenants-in-chief are reflected in the varying attitude towards the law that was displayed in The Magna Carta, issued by King John in 1215.
- People protested about the abuses of royal law. for example they were mad about the delaying or selling of justice. This is a problem that seems to reflect the amounts sometimes charged tenants in chief. They wanted all law to be applied to all free men.
- The Magna Carta talks in terms of lords and tenants, others generally refer to free men.
- Founded by Hugh Capet
- Produced 14 monarchs
- Henry IV was first capetian king of the Bourbon line
- It is among the largest and oldest European royal houses consisting of Hugh Capet's male-line descendants.
- Parlements (royal law courts), the States General (representative assembly), and the baillis (royal local officials), began to develop under the Capetians. These were some of the basic administrative institutions of the French monarchy.
EQ: How do leaders affect their political structures?
CtQ: Which leaders had the most impact on medieval politics?
All About - Capetian Dynasty. 2014. Web. 18 Dec. 2014. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4DnXbjy6Q_8&index=2&list=PLbvQUhFjkwvekjFl5YAChhaENYhBAoliL>.
Magna Carta. Perf. Andrew Chater. N.d. Web. 18 Dec. 2014. <https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=FfAq0Lp-AmA>.
N.d. Art History Classes. Washington: Dr. F. Johanna Minch, n.d. N. pag. Web. 17 Dec. 2014. <http://vmfa.museum/programs/adults/art-history-classes/>.
N.d. N.p.: n.p., 2014. N. pag. Bayeux Tapestry - Norman Conquest. Web. 17 Dec. 2014. <http://www.travelfranceonline.com/bayeux-tapestry-norman-conquest-england/>.