Africa Independence Movements

Caden and Esteban

    1. France in Africa
      1. All Africans under French rule were released during the period from the 50s-60s
      2. At this time there were about 2 million French in Algeria
      3. Revolt of May 1954 was repressed by French; eight thousand Algerian Muslims died
      4. War in Algeria, 1954-1962
      5. Guerrilla warfare began within the country
      6. As the war dredged along, over half a million French fighters committed to the conflict
      7. Both sides lost many men, including Algerian civilians; the war finally ended with Algeria gaining independence in 1962
    2. Revolutionary writer Franz Fanon began writing about colonial racism
  1. Black African nationalism and independence
    1. Growth of African nationalism
      1. Began protesting European imperialism within Africa
      2. African nationalism celebrated Negritude (blackness of the people)
    2. Obstacles to African independence
      1. Imperial powers assumed Africans were not ready for self-government
      2. White settlers opposed black independence
      3. Anticommunist fears justified interference in African politics
      4. Economic and political instability often hampered postindependent Africa
  2. Freedom and conflict in sub-Sahara Africa
    1. Ghana was first to gain independence within Africa in 1957
      1. Kwame Nkrumah, a nationalist leader, was jailed for speaking out
      2. After being released, he became the president of Ghana
      3. posters presented Queen Elizabeth and Nkrumah as equals, further boosting the  nationalistic movement
    2. Anticolonial rebellion in Kenya
      1. Violent clashes between native Kikuyu and European settlers after 1947
      2. 1930s and 1940s, Kikuyu were pushed off of their farm lands and were reduced to wage slaves
      3. Labeling Mau Mau as communist subversives, Britain gained U.S. support. Kikuyu began uprising but were crushed by superior arms; twelve thousand Africans werekilled
      4. Political parties legalized, 1959; Kenya gained independence, 1963

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