Almost every year in Ancient Egypt there was about 2.5 centimeters of rainfall. Floods cover the river valleys which leave sediments for crops,tree and plants to grow. The river rises because of the Ethiopia rainfall. The climate with mild weather and regular rain is good for plant life in Ancient Egypt. Rivers and lakes were often very green and lush.
Stable Food Supply
For Egyptians back then they had a wide variety of food choices. For starters luxury high class people ate more than peasants. High class people ate figs,dates,grapes,coconuts, breads,cakes and honey. Peasants mostly planted and and ate wild plants and hunted for fish in nearby water. When farmers lived in the middle of the desert, they were very successful because they were next to a fresh water source called the Nile River. To plant and grow, farmers used winnowing scoops,hoes,rakes,flint bladed sickles and plows and planted onions and cucumbers.
Three important roles of their government was the Vizier,Chief Treasurer and General of the Armies. The Vizier took charge and supervised the government officials and also carried out Pharaoh laws and advised them. In some or the toughest cases, he would be a chief judge in court. Chief Treasurer collected the taxes in any form of grain,cows,cloth and silver. The Military commander was the General of the Armies,helped the Pharaoh make alliances with other kingdoms and how to protect the border of Egypt in war situations. One of Khufu's major achievements was that he built the Great Pyramids of Giza and kept strict control of Egypt's food supply. Senusret made the White Chapel at Karnak and built the Canal of the Pharaohs. Hatshepsut was one of the most prolific builder Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt,and reestablishing the trade networks. Rameses II led the Egyptian Army against enemy attackers also responsible for building many cities,monuments and temples. They kept records of the country was running and had taxes to keep an orderly civilization. Protected their civilization by created armies with new battle strategies.
The Social Pyramid stood for the people who were the most important at the top and the least at the bottom. At the top of the Social Pyramid was the Pharaoh; the most supreme leader. Next layers were government officials and priests, religion was apart of their daily life style. Government officials carried out laws of the Pharaoh. Next were Scribes; they recorded information for Government Officials and Religious Leaders. Next layer Artisans; highly skilled carpenters, metalworkers, painters, sculptors and stone carvers. Bottom layer was the peasants; provided people with a steady food supply and worked on building massive building projects for the Pharaoh.
All of the Ancient Egyptians believed in immortality and afterlife after a person has passed away. They would wrap these dead people in linen and mummify them to preserve the body and the spirit in their afterlife. These religious beliefs were important to them because it's how they express their culture. Also it's how they believed the gods they believed in created and started the world.
There was four gods who each had something important. Anubis was the god of embalming and the dead. Ra was the sun of god. Osiris was the King of Earth. Finally Horus was the son of Osiris and is also the King of Earth.
Arts and Architecture
Their paintings and architecture was a high leveled, highly styled and symbolic works of art. Art was used as a form of communication for those who could not read. During a high social class banquet music played such as flutes, harps, rattles and lutes. Other things like dancers and acrobats were also there. Ancient Egyptians built statues of the Pharaoh's like Khufu's three inch ivory statue found in 1903. The pyramids was built from over 2 million stone blocks. There were were tunnels with multiple burial chambers. The pyramids took almost 20 years to complete. It sat in the center of many temples, statues,monuments and smaller tombs. Some and most artwork were put into the tombs of the Pharaoh. Dance was also a big part of their art culture. They expressed their feelings of joy, grief, happiness and vitality. All social classes were exposed to music and dancing. There were two major kinds of dancing; Pair Dancing and Solo Dances. In Pair Dancing either two men or two women danced with each other. Girls usually held hands during dances with dramatic movements and expressing emotions. These pair dancers usually performed at banquets and festivals. In solo dances, the King performed the Sun Dance. Priests designated as the Kings representatives performed solo religious dances.
Writing made their lives easier because they kept accurate records and maintained control of their large empire. One invention of technology was medicine. They used honey and human brains to cure eye infections. They also used whole cooked mouse to cure coughs. Another invention was makeup. Men and women wore dark eye makeup from Kohl from soot and other minerals. One major form of technology was toothpaste. They invented toothpaste because they ate a lot of bread then made their teeth get crusty and fall out. It was made out of ashes, eggshells and ground up ox hooves. Another great form of technology was building ships. They originally built small boats from papyrus reeds. Later built large ships from cedar wood imported from Lebanon. The Ancient Egyptians also had a wide variety of furniture. They mostly had stool, beds and tables.
Their form of writing was in Ancient Egyptian scripts called hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphics were symbols of surrounding objects in their life to present as words. The tools they used for writing were stone tablets, clay tablets, bamboo slates, wax tablets, vellum, parchment paper, copper plate, styluses, quills, brushes, pencils and pens with ink. We know what their writing means from the Rosetta Stone. The Rosetta Stone is a stone with both Egyptian and Greek languages. It also uses three scripts, they are Greek, Demotic and hieroglyphic. Hieroglyphics were used for important and religious documents, Demotic was used by most Egyptians during that time, and Greek writing was used by the Rulers.
Connections to Life Today
For one thing, just like the Ancient Egyptians we still use pen and paper to write down things. Also most things like having a countries organized government to give laws to people. We also have highly developed culture, stable and steady food supply and divisions of labor. Just like back then and today, all people believed in a god and have a culture. From priests today and in Ancient Egypt, the priests still worship their gods and kept them happy. Unlike a Pharaoh, we have a ruler but he is called a president. Finally there are still people like carpenters, farmers, jewelry makers, etc. Those kind of people are still here today.