Hindsight Bias: The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it. Also know as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.
Operational Definitions: A statement of the procedures used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
Random Sample: A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
Critical Thinking: Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.