Nelson Mandela

Donovan Dickens 12/10/13


Rolihlahla Mandela was born into the Madiba clan in Mvezo, Transkei, on July 18, 1918, to Nonqaphi Nosekeni and Nkosi Mphakanyiswa Gadla Mandela. His father died when he was a child and the young Rolihlahla became a ward of Jongintaba at the Great Place in Mqhekezweni. He completed his Junior Certificate at Clarkebury Boarding Institute and went on to Healdtown, a Wesleyan secondary school of some repute, where he matriculated.


In 1937 he moved to Headtown the Methodist college in Fort Buefort attended by most Thembu royalty, including Justice. The headmaster emphasised the superiority of English culture and government, but Mandela became increasingly interested in native African culture. With Jongintaba's backing, Mandela began work on a Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree at the University of Fort Hare, an elite black institution in Alice, Eastern Cape, with around 150 students. There he studied English, anthropology politics, native administration, and Roman Dutch Law in his first year, desiring to become an interpreter or clerk in the Native Affairs Department. Continuing his interest in sport, Mandela took up ballroom dancing, performed in a drama society play about Abraham Licoln, and gave Bible classes in the local community as part of the Students Christian Association.


Beginning law studies at the University of Witwaterstrand, Mandela was the only native African student, and though facing racism, he befriended liberal and communist European, Jewish, and Indian students, among them Joe Slovo, Harry Schwarz and Ruth First. At Sisulu's house, Mandela met Evelyn Mase an ANC activist from Engcobo Transkei, who was training at the time to become a nurse. Married on 5 October 1944, after initially living with her relatives, they rented House no. 8115 in Orlando from early 1946. Their first child, Madiba "Thembi" Thembekile, was born in February 1945,and a daughter named Makaziwe was born in 1947, dying nine months later of meningitis. Mandela enjoyed home life, welcoming his mother and sister Leabie to stay with him. In July 1947, Mandela rushed Lembede, who was ill, to the hospital, where he died. In 1948 elected national secretary of the ANCYL.


Arrested and joins 155 others on trial for Treason. All are acquitted by 29 March 1961. 1958 divorces Evelyn Mase; Marries Nomzamo Winnie Madikizela – they have two daughters: Zenani (1959) and Zindzi (1960). 1962, eaves the country for military training and to garner support for the ANC. July 23, returns to South Africa. August 5, arrested near Howick in KwaZulu-Natal. November, Sentenced to five years in prison for incitement and leaving the country without a passport. 1963 May 27, Sent to Robben Island. Mr Mandela, Sisulu, Raymond Mhlaba and Andrew Mlangeni and later Ahmed Kathrada are sent to Pollsmoor Prison. 1985 February 10, rejects, through his daughter, Zindzi, South African President PW Botha's offer to release him if he renounces violence. 1985 November 3, admitted to the Volks Hospital for prostate surgery. November 23, discharged from Volks Hospital and returned to Pollsmoor Prison. 1990 February 11, released.


1993 December 10, awarded the Nobel Peace Prize with FW de Klerk. 1994 April 27, votes for the first time in his life. May 9, elected by Parliament as first president of a democratic South Africa. May 10, inaugurated as President of the Republic of South Africa. December 14, launches his autobiography Long Walk to Freedom.


1995 establishes the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund. 1996, divorces Winnie Mandela. 1998 July 18, marries Graça Machel on his 80th birthday. 1999 steps down after one term as President, establishes the Nelson Mandela Foundation


2001, diagnosed with prostate cancer. 2003, establishes the Mandela Rhodes Foundation. 2004 June 1, announces that he will be stepping down from public life. 2005 January 6, announces that his eldest son Makgatho had died of AIDS.


2007 April 13, attends the installation of his grandson Mandla as chief of the Mvezo Traditional Council. 2008 July 18, turns 90 years old, asks future generations to continue the fight for social justice. 2009, votes for the fourth time in his life; Attends the inauguration of President Jacob Zuma on May 9 and witnesses Zuma's first State of the Nation address; turns 91. 2010, is formally presented with the Fifa World Cup trophy before it embarks on a tour of South Africa.


2010 June 11, his great-granddaughter Zenani is killed in a car accident. 2010 June 17, attends the funeral of his great-granddaughter Zenani. 2010 July 11, makes a surprise appearance at the Final of the Fifa World Cup in Soweto. 2010 July, celebrates his 92nd birthday at home in Johannesburg with family and friends. 2010 October 12, his second book Conversations with Myself is published. 2011 January, is admitted to hospital in Johannesburg where he was diagnosed with a chest infection. He is discharged after two nights. 2011 May 16, votes in the local government elections. 2011 June 21, is visited at home by American First Lady Michelle Obama and her daughters Sasha and Malia. 2011 July 18, celebrates his 93rd birthday with his family in Qunu, Eastern Cape. 2011 October 21, is officially counted in South Africa’s Census 2011. 2011 December 25, spends Christmas with family in Qunu. 2012 July 18, celebrates his 94th birthday with his family in Qunu, Eastern Cape. December 8, is admitted to hospital. December 26, is discharged from hospital. 2013 June 8, is admitted to hospital. July 18, spends his 95th birthday in hospital. September 1, is discharged from hospital. Dies 5th December 2013.

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