Formation of the Earth

The Earth was formed about 4.54 million years ago, back then there was no oxygen and therefore not fit for life. The first era of the world was name after Hades, it was called the "Hadean Eon". This is because in the early days of the earth, the planet was under going meteor strikes and intense volcanism. This is due to the large heat flow back then. Ice that was brought into the world by comets, cooled down the earth's molten surface and formed a solid crust and oceans. Continents were formed and then broken until eventually they formed a supercontinent. This supercontinent was called "Rodinia". 540-600 million years later, the process of breaking up and combining continued to create the next supercontinent, "Pannotia".


The world was once again re-shaped and created the most recent supercontinent, Pangea. The world we know today is because of Pangea breaking apart 180 million years ago. This supercontinent was located mostly in the southern hemisphere and was surrounded by the super ocean, known as Panthalassa.

Continental Drift

Continental drift is the movement of Earth's tectonic plates while volcanoes form around their edges. It was a theory created by the German scientist, Alfred Wegener where he stated that the continental landmasses were drifting across Earth. Over time, scientists accepted his theory and now know that continents rest on slabs of rock called tectonic plates. They are consistently moving and interacting with each other reshaping it's landmasses. Wegener's theory was proved by the fact that the same types of fossils and plants are found at both South America and Africa, this goes along with the jigsaw puzzle shape that is visible due to the shape of both coasts.

Tectonic Plates

Since Pangea, the plates have been sliding on the mantle's upper layer, this is a "conveyor belt" like movement that moves the plates of the crust. This has caused the continents to drift away from each other, creating the world we know today. Some obvious examples are South America, North America and Africa. They were once joined together, Africa slotting into the gap between South and North America, but now the continent has drifted East.

Future Formation of the World

Scientists have predicted that in the next 249 million years, the supercontinent cycle will create the next possible supercontinent, Pangea Ultima. The hypothesis suggests that the Indian and Atlantic oceans will get wider until new subduction zones pull the continents back together, create a new Pangea. Eurasia is said to collide with most continents and microcontinents, like when they collided with Laurentia. Roughly 50 million years from now, scientists predict that North America will shift slightly west, and Eurasia will shift East, or possible South. This would pull Britain closer to the North Pole. The prediction of 250 million years from now shows that the Atlantic and Indian oceans will have closed. It also shows that North America has collided with Africa, in a more southerly position.

Rough Idea of Pangea Ultima

Comment Stream

a year ago

A1, a great Tackk, well done. Clearly explained and well researched. You could have developed the points about the evidence for continental drift