Muslim: The First Crusade
two of the three Dominant powers in the Mediterranean were Muslim. The Muslim had Conquered the Arabian peninsula, the fertile Crescent, much of central Asia, the southern and eastern shores of the Mediterranean, Spain , Sicily and more Muslim was the most powerful force of the two of the three Empire in the Mediterranean. There were 'Persons of the book' who were called dhimmi,or persons of protected status as long as they paid the tax or the jizya to the caliph, they would be protected.
The Umayyads 661 - 750 During the Umayyads Period the Arabic Language was used in the entire Empire ,
The Caliphs were Powerful they were not interested in Religion as in Power. The Abbasids 750 - 1258 The Capitol was moved this moved had economic and Political to have a better empire for them.
The Fatmids had conquered all the Empire that took place. they attempt to rescue Jerusalem after the defeat to the Franks 1099 but they fail to rescue Jerusalem back to them.
The Turks - they began in the 6th Century as a Nomadic people from the area in Central Area of what is Tukestan. Many Turks began to move to Arab Empire as a slave and Soldiers. The King of Arab Empire had killed many people that are Christian they proven them self ungood for the the empire.