Sarah Thomas, period 2
- Leukemia- a malignant progressive disease in which the bone marrow and other blood-forming organs produce increased numbers of immature or abnormal leukocytes. These suppress the production of normal blood cells, leading to anemia and other symptoms.
- Causes of leukemia include: previous chemotherapy or radiation therapy, exposure to high doses of radiation or to benzene (found in unleaded gasoline, tobacco smoke, chemical production facilities), family history, genetic abnormality, such as an abnormality on chromosome 22 (also known as the Philadelphia chromosome), and genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome and Fanconi anemia.
- Symptoms of leukemia are: fever or chills, persistent fatigue, weakness, frequent or severe infection, losing weight without trying, swollen lymph nodes, enlarged liver or spleen, easy bleeding or bruising, recurrent nosebleeds, tiny red spots in your skin (petechiae), excessive sweating, especially at night, and bone pain or tenderness.
- To diagnose leukemia, your doctor may perform a physical exam, blood test, or a bone marrow test.
- The number of new cases of leukemia was 13.0 per 100,000 men and women per year. The number of deaths was 7.0 per 100,000 men and women per year.
- There is no known way to treat most types of leukemia. Some types of leukemia may be prevented by avoiding high doses of radiation, exposure to the chemical benzene, smoking, and other tobacco use, or certain types of chemotherapy used to treat other types of cancer.
- Complications of leukemia include: infection, anemia, richter transformation, prolymphocytes, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and second cancers.
- There are five major approaches to the treatment of leukemia:
- chemotherapy to kill leukemia cells using strong anti-cancer drugs;
- interferon therapy to slow the reproduction of leukemia cells and promote the immune system's anti-leukemia activity;
- radiation therapy to kill cancer cells by exposure to high-energy radiation;
- stem cell transplantation (SCT) to enable treatment with high doses of chemotherapy and radiation therapy; and
- surgery to remove an enlarged spleen or to install a venous access device (large plastic tube) to give medications and withdraw blood samples.
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