Preamble & Articles I,II,III
We the people of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, and provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish the Constitution for the United States of America.
ARTICLE I: LEGISLATIVE
Section I: The congress of the United States needs to consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
Section II: This specifies that the House of Representatives be composed of members who are chosen every two years by the people of the states. It also creates the way in which congressional districts are to be divided among the states. This also establishes that every 10 years, every adult in the country must answer a survey. This is also helpful when a House member dies or resigns during the term, the governor of that state may call for a special election to fill the vacancy. Finally this section specifies that only the House of Representatives holds the power of impeachment.
Section III: This article defines the upper house of Congress, the Senate. It establishes some minimum requirements such as age. They serve for 6 Years each. Each state has the exact same number of senators, two each regardless of the population. This Section introduces the Vice-President, who is the leader of the Senate.
Section IV: Each state may establish its own methods for electing members of the Congress, or requirements that Congress must meet at least once per year.
Section V: Congress must have a minimum number of members present in order to meet, and that it may set fines for members who do not show up. It says that members may be expelled, that each house must keep a journal to record proceedings and votes, and that neither house can adjourn without the permission of the other.
Section VI: Establishes that members of Congress will be paid, that they cannot be detained while traveling to and from Congress, that they cannot hold any other office in the government while in the Congress.
Section VII: Any bill for raising money (such as by taxes or fees) must start out in the House. All bills must pass both houses of Congress in the exact same form. Bills that pass both houses are sent to the President. He can either sign the bill, in which case it becomes law, or he can veto it. In the case of a veto, the bill is sent back to Congress, and if both houses pass it by a two-thirds majority, the bill becomes law over the President's veto. This is known as overriding a veto.
Section VIII: Lists specific powers of Congress, including the power to establish and maintain an army and navy, to establish post offices, to create courts, to regulate commerce between the states, to declare war, and to raise money.
Section IX: This places certain limits on Congress. No law can give preference to one state over another; no money can be taken from the treasury except by passed law, and no title of nobility, such as Prince or Marquis, will ever be established by the government.
Section X: Prohibits the states from several things. They cannot make their own money, or declare war and they cannot tax goods from other states.
ARTICLE II: EXECUTIVE
Section I: Establishes the office of the President and the Vice-President, and sets their terms to be four years. Presidents are elected by the electoral college, where each state has one vote for each member of Congress. President has to be born in the U.S and will be paid but there pay cannot go up or down.
Section II: This gives the president some important powers: He is commander-in-chief of the armed forces and of the militia, he can make treaties with other nations and he can pick judges or other members ONLY with approval of the Senate.
Section III: This lets us know some duties of the President. To give a state of the union address, to make suggestions to Congress, to act as head of state by receiving ambassadors and other heads of state, and to be sure the laws of the United States are carried out.
Section IV: This is very brief and it just talks about the removal of the President, called impeachment.
ARTICLE III: JUDICIAL
Section I: Establishes the Supreme Court which is the highest court in the United States. It also sets the terms of judges, of both the Supreme Court and lower courts: that they serve "during good behavior" which means for life and it says judges should be paid.
Section II: Tells the kinds of cases that may be heard by the federal judiciary, which cases the Supreme Court may hear first, and that all other cases heard by the Supreme Court are by appeal. It also guarantees trial by jury in criminal court.
Section III: Defines what the crime of Treason is.