French   News

By Kristen Dawkins

                 when the government's monopoly of power is effectively challenged by some groups who no longer recognize its legitimate authority. No longer grant it loyalty, and no longer obey its commands.Dual or multiple sovereignty is the identifying feature of a revolutionary situation - the fragmentation of an existing polity into two or more blocs, each of which exercises control over some part of the government and lays claim to its exclusive control over the government.the overthrow of the Constitutional Monarch on August 1792—often called the “Second Revolution”—and the establishment of the First French Republic.   

                International struggle for hegemony and Empire outstrips the fiscal resources of the state. Political conflict conflict between the Monarchy and the nobility over the “reform” of the tax system led to paralysis and bankruptcy.  The Enlightenment: impulse for reform intensifies political conflicts; reinforces traditional aristocratic constitutionalism, one variant of which was laid out in Montequieu’s Spirit of the Laws; introduces new notions of good government, the most radical being popular sovereignty, as in Rousseau’s Social Contract [1762] the attack on the regime and privileged class by the Literary Underground of “Grub Street;” the broadening influence of public.  Social antagonisms between two rising groups the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie. Economic hardship, especially the agrarian crisis of 1788-89 generates popular.

       continue until a single sovereign order has been restored either by agreement or force. As the French Revolution demonstrated, the level of violence is likely to be greater after the first outbreak of revolution or revolutionary situation, as one group claiming sovereignty seeks to vanquish one or more other rival groups also claiming sovereignty.