Figurative Language

Metaphors-Describe one thing as if it were something else.
Personification-Gives human qualities to something that is not human.
Similes-Use like or as to compare two seemingly unlike things.
Symbols-Anything that represents something else.

Sound Devices

Alliteration-Repetition of consonant sounds in the beginning of words.
Repetition-The use of any element of language, a sound, word, phrase, clause, or sentence.
Assonance-The repetition of vowel sounds followed by different consonants in stressed syllables.
Consonance-The repetition of similar consonant sounds at the ends of accented syllables.
Onomatopoeia-The use of words that imitate sounds.
Rhyme-The repetition of sounds at the ends of words.
Meter-The rhythmical pattern in a poem.

Forms of Poetry

Narrative-Tells a story in verse. Narrative poems often have elements similar to those short stories, such as plot and characters.
Haiku- A three-line Japanese verse form. The first and third lines each have five syllables and the second line has seven.
Free Verse-Defined by its lack of strict structure. It has no regular meter, rhyme, fixed line length, or specific stanza pattern.
Lyric-Expresses thoughts and feelings of a single speaker, often in highly musical verse.
Ballads-Songlike poems that tell stories. They often deal with adventure and romance.
Concrete-Shaped to look like their subjects. The poet arranges the lines to create a picture on the page.
Limericks-Humurous, rhyming, five-line poems with a specific rhythm pattern and a rhyme scheme.
Rhyming Couplets-Pairs of rhyming lines, usually of the same meter and length.


1. Abash-To destroy the self-confidence, poise, or self-possession of; disconcert; make ashamed or embarrassed.
2. Ballad-Any light, simple song, especially one of sentimental or romantic character, having two or more stanzas all sung to the same melody.
3. Burrow-A hole or tunnel in the ground made by a rabbit, fox, or similar animal for habitation and refuge.
4. Crimson-Deep purplish-red.
5. Father John's Medicine-Old fashioned cough syrup.
6. Grime-Dirt, soot, or other filthy matter, especially adhering to or embedded in a surface.
7. Hence-From this time; from now.
8. Laments-To feel or express sorrow or regret for.
9. Larks-Any of numerous, chiefly Old World oscine birds, of the family Alaudidae, characterized by an unusually long, straight hind claw, especially the skylark.
10. Minnow-A small, European cyprinoid fish.
11. Mouldering-To turn to dust by natural decay; crumble; disintegrate; waste away.
12. Overspread-To spread or diffuse over.
13. Sore-Suffering mental pain; grieved, distressed, or sorrowful.
14. Speckled-A small speck, spot, or mark.
15. Wren-Any of numerous small, active songbirds of the family Troglodytidae.