Road To Civil War
By Taylor & Chris
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
> Mandated that states to which escaped slaves fled were obligated to return them to their masters upon their discovery and subjected persons who helped runaway slaves to criminal sanctions.
> Allowed for the capture and return of runaway slaves within the territory of the United States. Enacted by Congress in 1793, the first Fugitive Slave Act authorized local governments to seize and return escaped slaves to their owners and imposed penalties on anyone who aided in their flight.
> This was devastating to free blacks living in the North, but the Southerners believed that the Compromise met its goals in stopping the south from seceding from the Union, at least temporarily.
Uncle Tom's Cabin- 1852
> Uncle toms cabin is an anti- slavery book published march 20, 1852 by Harriet Beecher Stowe
> the significance of this book is that it helped lay the groundwork for the civil war.
> It woke up a lot of people to the horrors of slavery, especially up north where it was not seen anymore. Southerners tried to dismiss Harriet Beecher Stowe saying shed never been on a plantation. She put out a second book called A Key To Uncle Tom's Cabin which had actual testimony about slavery by eye witnesses of slavery.> Abraham Lincoln greeted Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1862 by saying "So you're the little woman who wrote the book that started this great war."
> The strength of Uncle Tom's Cabin is its ability to illustrate slavery's effect on families, and to help readers empathize with enslaved characters. Stowe's characters freely debated the causes of slavery, the Fugitive Slave Law, the future of freed people, what an individual could do, and racism. Writing in the 1950s, poet Langston Hughes called the book a "moral battle cry for freedom."
Kansas & Nebraska Act- 1854
> The act of Congress in 1854 annulling the Missouri Compromise, providing for the organization of the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, and permitting these territories self-determination on the question of slavery.
> Created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening new lands for settlement, and had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by allowing white male settlers in those territories to determine through popular sovereignty whether they would allow slavery within each territory.
> It repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820. It applied the principle of popular sovereignty to the territories. It permitted the expansion of slavery beyond the Southern states. It also sparked the formation of the Republican party. This Act would be one of the causes of the Bleeding Kansas and the Civil War.
Dred Scott Decision- 1857
> A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana territory made free land by the Missouri compromise had made him a free man. the U.S supreme court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
> It gave slave owners a right to take their slaves into western territory, thereby negating the doctrine of popular sovereignty and severely undermining the platform of the newly created republican party
> It was a victory for the South, & the act had sought to limit the spread of slavery into the new territories of the west and maintain the racial balance of power between North and South.
Reform Movements- 1841-1881, 1848-1920, 1850, & 1851-1920
> A reform movement is a kind of social movement that aims to make gradual change, or change in certain aspects of society, rather than rapid or fundamental changes. A reform movement is distinguished from more radical social movements such as revolutionary movements.
> (Women's Rights) Women’s rights is the fight for the idea that women should have equal rights with men. Over history, this has taken the form of gaining property rights, the women’s suffrage, or the right of women to vote, reproductive rights, and the right to work for for equal pay.
> (Temperance Movement) The temperance movement was an attempt to eliminate the evils of alcohol. Mostly the same women involved in the women's rights movement . Led by the American Christian Temperance Union they sought to save the American family by trying to get alcohol declared illegal.
> (Education Movement) Led by Horace Mann, the great educational reformer, a movement was led to create mandatory public education in America. It was eventually successful.
> (Treatment of the insane) Reformers led by Dorothea Dix led the way to more modern treatment of the mentally ill.
> While some reforms caused crime, others caused equality with a side of racism with it. also enlightened america with details of things happening within america, and made them aware of things needed to help these movements.
> The 19th-century doctrine or belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was both justified and inevitable.
> It was the primary force that caused the United States to expand west across North America. To Americans, expansion offered self-advancement, self-sufficiency, income and freedom.
> The north wanted to move west to stop slavery while the south wanted to move west to expand slavery.
Transcontinental Railroads- 1869
> A train route across the United States, finished in 1869. It was the project of two railroad companies: the Union Pacific built from the east, and the Central Pacific built from the west. The two lines met in Utah.
> The Transcontinental railroad played a major role in connecting the East and Western coasts of the United States. Spanish settlements had been established in the Western coast, currently the states of Washington, Oregon and California but they were separated by vast lands from the Eastern coast
> Forced North and South to settle the territory that had been left unsettled. The North and South had battle to compete against each other for it.