The Anatomy of the Spanish American Revolutions 1810-1825
Symptoms establish, fever rises, terror sweeps, and convalescence reached: these are the four phases involved this anatomy of revolutions.
Created by Arianna, Evan, & Meredith
Phase 1: Symptoms Establish
The countries within Latin American all shared common 'symptoms' that led to revolution. Phase one involves complaints and discontentment due to economic constraints and inefficient government. The creoles, native-born elites, in Spanish colonies grew increasing frustrated with the heavy taxes and tariffs that the Spanish monarchy had been imposing on them. Eventually, Napoleon invaded Spain and Portugal in 1808 and got rid of the royal authority, leaving Latin America in disarray. These conditions marked the beginnings of revolution in Spanish colonies.
This image depicts Miguel Hidalgo, a priest, speaking to the people on September 16th, 1810. This famous speech is known as the "Cry of Dolores". The day this speech was made is the day that Mexicans today now celebrate as Independence Day. The "Cry of Dolores" represents phase one because it shows the unhappiness of the people toward the inept leadership and money shortages.
Phase 2: Fever Rises
This phase comprises of escalation and the people rising up against the government. The current government collapses and is replaced with a new one.
Miguel Hidalgo was a priest who led peasant insurrection and revolts in 1810. Although he was killed about a year after he rallied up the people against the privileged and European-born elites, Hidalgo's name became a symbol of the Meixcan revolution. Hidalgo represents phase two because his revolts shows the rising revolution.
Bolívar invaded Columbia and defeated Spanish forces on August 7th, 1819 at Boyacá. Creole leaders sought to establish a centralized authority over the new governments. A series of civil wars ensued, faciliating Spanish reconquest of the United Provinces of New Granada between 1914 and 1816.
Phase 3: Terror Sweeps
Phase three is encompassed by violence. The new government that had been installed in phase two turns out to be incompetent. It is removed from power violently, and radicals take control.
On December 9th, 1824, the Battle of Ayacucho (also called the Battle of La Quinua) took place at Pampa de Ayacucho (or Quinua), a few kilometers away from Ayacucho, near the town of Quinua between Royalist and Independist forces. After the victory at Ayacucho, following strict orders from Bolívar, general Sucre entered Upper Peru (today's Bolivia) territory on February 25th, 1825.
This is an image of José de San Martín, an important Argentine military leader. He was able to organize his men into a strong fighting force and won independence for Argentina, Chile and Peru. His military battles are examples of the violence of phase three.
This painting depicts Simón Bolívar, a key military leader of the Spanish revolutions. He not only brought independence to his own country, Venezuela, but also to Columbia and Ecuador. Simón Bolívar relates to this third phase because his campaign to wrest control from the Spanish involved a number of violent battles.
Phase 4: Convalescence Reached
Phase four is about stabilization. After the violence ends, a strong central government is installed to stabilize the country. The revolution vanishs and the radical beliefs that had started the revolution disappear.
After the revolution came to a close, the Argentine government established The Primera Junta in 1810 as the first independent government of Argentina. With hopes to stabilize the new nation, the new government offered popular sovereignty. Replying to the call of the people, the government in Argentina shows the presence of stage four as the revolution declined.