Biotic factors

Rubber trees

Bamboo trees



Poison dart frogs





Some of the animals in the rainforest

Abiotic factors

Humid air

Hot Temperature




A rainforest near a lake.

Carrying Capacity

Is the largest number of one particular species that an environment can hold.

Some resources animals need are food, water, shelter, and space.

If the lemurs can't find food to eat, then the population of the lemurs will go down.

Limiting Factors

A factor that limits the population of a species in a particular environment.

An example is the antelope and the tiger. If there aren't enough antelopes in the rainforest then the tiger population will fall.

Energy Roles

There are many trophic levels in the rainforest. These levels are the producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and tertiary consumer. One producer would be a bromeliad. A primary consumer would be a sloth. A secondary consumer would be a anteater. A tertiary consumer would be a tiger.

This is a producer.
A tertiary consumer

Each level of consumer gets its energy from the level below it. However, only ten percent of the energy is actually transferred.

Producers are the beginning of any food chain, web, or energy pyramid. It is important because only producers can get energy from the sun.  

Food Webs

Food chains and webs show how energy is transferred, but the food web is more accurate because it shows more possibilities.

If any of these animals were removed, then another population would increase or decrease. For example, if the red-eyed tree frogs  died off, then the jaguar population would decrease slightly, but the population of the insects would increase slightly.

Energy Pyramids

Energy pyramids are different from the food webs and chains. The pyramid doesn't show the probabilities but it does show the trophic levels clearly, or the levels of consumer.

Energy pyramids are shaped like pyramids because they show how much energy is being transferred, and the general population. Whenever a consumer eats the level below it, they only gain 10 percent of the energy the organism had contained. So the upper levels are smaller to signify how much energy is being transferred. It also represents the population, because the bigger the consumer, the more energy it need. So there can only be a few top predators because of the amount of energy needed to survive, and there are more organisms at the base.  


The photosynthesis equation is 6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6O2.

CO2 is carbon dioxide

H2O is water

C6H12O6 is glucose

O2 is oxygen

For photosynthesis, you need carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight. After photosynthesis happens, it makes glucose, or sugar, and oxygen.

Photosynthesis happens inside chloroplasts, which is a little organelle inside a plant cell.

When photosynthesis occurs, radiant energy, or light, is transformed into chemical energy. When the plant is eaten, that chemical energy is transformed into heat or mechanical energy.


Tropism is when a plant turns or bends to get to a resource it needs, like sunlight or water.

Some tropisms in a rainforest are geotropism, or how it reacts to gravity, hydrotropism, or the way it bends toward water, thigmotropism, or the way it reacts to touch, or phototropism, the way it reacts to sunlight.

Without phototropism, plants wouldn't nearly be able to gather enough sunlight, especially in the lower levels of the forest, and without thigmotropism, vines wouldn't be able to grow either.


Decomposers are very important in any ecosystem. Decomposers break down dead organisms into nutrients that plants use to grow. Without decomposers, plants would grow less and less, and therefore, herbivores would have less to eat and die off. The other consumers would then have less animals to prey on, and die out as well.

Some decomposers are termites, velvet worms, vermillion wax cap mushrooms, leaf beetles, partula snails, worms, oyster mushrooms, ants, and of course lots of other fungi.


Adaptations are changes that happen over generations that help an animal or plant live. They come in two forms, structural and behavioral. Structural adaptations help the animal physically, claws or long trunks, and behavioral shows how they act, like if they hibernate in winter.

Poison dart frogs have poison in order to protect itself against predators. Sloths have claws in order to hang on to trees and eat leaves using their flat teeth. Tigers have fanged teeth in order to rip into their prey. Mangroves have stilted roots that help the plant stay in the ground upright. There are many adaptations.

If any organism is moved from their habitat, then the adaptations that are specific for that environment could become harmful. For example, a toucans bill is used to dump excess heat, but if the toucan was moved to a cold environment, the bill would dump heat that is necessary for the toucan to survive.

The toucan has a long bill for getting rid of excess heat.

Natural Selection

Natural Selection is the process where organisms that are better adapted to their environment lives and produces more offspring.

For example, the anteater has many adaptations, one being its nose. It can smell anthills from far away and can even tell what type of ant it is. Because of that, the anteater population increased considerably because they can now find food easier. One reason the anteaters might have changed was because some ant species might have adapted and became harmful to the anteater, so in order to compensate, the nose adapted to tell what is good and what is bad. Another reason could be that there was a flood or something along those lines, and wiped out an ant population so that it's hard to find food.

An anteater using its nose to find ants

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2 years ago

Great job, Edward. I love the graph! Keep up the good work.

2 years ago

good job on 3 and 4 😉

2 years ago

thank you @kaitlynnorman for the feedback

2 years ago

thank you @gracedean

2 years ago

Ecoportfolio steps 3 and 4 are very neat and creative.

2 years ago

Great job! So much detail, but i'd recommend that you don't use to single pictures next to each other.

2 years ago

it looks really good and nothing bad about it

2 years ago

thank you @gracerichburg for the compliment

2 years ago

Thank you @sethmaginnis1 for the advice, I will fix that soon.

2 years ago

thank you @canyonblacklock for the feedback.