Opium War (Britain vs. China)
The Opium War was caused due to Britain forcing trade between themselves and China. China later outlawed Opium and refused to trade with Britain. Britain was angered by this and waged war against China.
The British defeated China and demanded indemnity from the Chinese. Hong Kong was taken from China and was kept by the British after the Opium War. Britain also demanded 5 Chinese ports to be open exclusively for foreign trade.
The Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) was slowly dying. Canals and other water systems broke out and caused flooding in the Huang Valley. Peasants had to deal with tax evasion by the upper class and corruption. The peasants later rebelled against all of China, this rebellion was later was called the Taiping Rebellion.
China had a surplus of silk that was very valuable. Resources such as aluminum, iron, coal, and titanium were able to mine in China. The country receives more than 80 inches of rainfall which is utilized for growing crops in China such as rice, wheat, peanuts, and bamboo.
China didn't need to trade with or be influenced by foreigners. China had water sources on their south and east coast. China had a good climate to grow food crops such as rice. On the other hand, the whole rest of the world wanted to trade with China at any cost.
Social: After the Taiping Rebellion, 20-30 million people died. Foreign influences hit the people and leaders of China. Newly created laws from the Hundred Days Reform affected the military of China and schools in China. The Chinese Business class was created from the aftermath of the Boxing Uprising.
Political: Hong Xiuquan stepped down and ended the Qing dynasty. Ci Xi acquired power of China. Confucian traditions were kept deeply in the Chinese government even after the ending of the Qing dynasty. After the Sino-Japanese War, Guang Xu initiated the Hundred Days Reform. After the Boxing Uprising, Sun Yixian became the president of the new Chinese Republic.
Economic: China kept the Open Door Policy (which kept trade open to everyone) in order to recover from the Opium Wars, Taiping Rebellions, and Sino-Japanse War. Military was affected after the Hundred Days Reform. After the Boxer Uprising, China's economy expanded. Mining, exports of cash crops, railroads, and many more things expanded and helped Chinese industries.
Cultural: Westernization and Modernization later occurred within China. The Hundred Days Reform sought out to modernize all of China. The people of China (after the Boxing Uprising) were massively influenced by Westernization