Basic facts: This is the enlargement of the thyroid gland. This gland is located in the next, below the Adam's apple. It is the swelling in the neck from swelling in the thyroid gland.

Pathology: This effects the thyroid gland in the neck. It produces two main hormones which are thyroxine and triiodothyronine.

Signs/Symptoms: Shortness of breath. Due to the compression of the windpipe coughing and wheezing may occure.

Causes: This disease has different causes upon what type it is. It can be classified as endemic or sporadic. Simple goiters is caused by the shortage of thyroid hormones, so the thyroid gland tries to make up the shortage by enlargement. Endemic goiters occurs in certain geographic areas that don't receive enough iodine in their diet.

Treatment: There are different treatment options according to the size. Medications include levothroxine, synthroid, and tapazole. Surgery can be preformed to remove the thyroid gland. Also, radioactive iodine can be injected into the blood stream. The iodine is delivered to the thyroid gland, killing thyroid cells, which shrinks the gland.

Source: "Goiter." Cleveland Clinic. N.p., 1995-2014. Web. 03 Mar. 2015.

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