The years of Reconstruction "were years of revolutionary turmoil, with the elemental passions predominant....The prevailing note was one of tragedy....Never have American public men in responsible positions, directing the destiny of the nation, been so brutal, hypocritical, and corrupt. The constitution was treated as a doormat on which politicians and army officers wiped their feet after wading in the muck....The southern people literally were put to the torture...[by] rugged conspirators...[who] assumed the pose of philanthropists and patriots."
- historian Claude G. Bowers, 192938

"There has been houses broken open, windows smashed and doors broken down in the dead hours of the night, men rushing in, cursing and swearing and discharging their Pistols inside the house. Men have been knocked down and unmercifully beaten and yet the authorities do not notice it at all. We would open a school here, but are almost afraid to do so, not knowing that we have any protection for life or limb."

- African-American citizens of Calhoun, Georgia, requesting protection from federal troops, 1861

1) The 13th amendment abolished slavery in the United States.

2) Manifest destiny was a term coined by John O'Sullivan. It was "the right to spread which God has given us"

3) Know-Nothing's wanted rigid restrictions on immigration and naturalization, and for laws allowing deportation of alien paupers.

4) Dred Scott vs. Stanford was a case involving  Dred Scott, an enslaved African American man who had been taken by his owners to free states and territories, attempted to sue for his freedom. The Court held that African Americans, whether enslaved or free, could not be American citizens and therefore had no standing to sue in federal court, and that the federal government had no power to regulate slavery in the federal territories acquired after the creation of the United States.

5) The Wade Davis Bill was written in 1864 and stated that the Majority of the state had to swear loyalty in order to be re-elected. States dih not only have to swear loyalty, but swear that they were never truly disloyal, therefore denying the honor of the Southern cause.