Chapter 12 - The Industrial Revolution
Section 2- Reaction and Revolution
The Congress of Vienna
Europe tries to retain order after the rule of Napoleon. Major European Powers meet to come up with a solution.
Rightful monarchs were to be restored in European countries to establish peace.
Territories were rearranged to distribute even power throughout all countries. No one country was to become to powerful and dominate Europe.
The Conservative Order
Leaders started believing in conservatism,which was a political philosophy based on traditional values.
European Powers gathered to settle peace and maintain the new balance.They were known as The Concert of Europe.
The Principle of Intervention was created and armies were sent in to restore monarchs to the throne.
England refused to restore the monarchy because they did not want the great powers in their affairs.
Forces of Change
Liberals wanted people to be as free as possible. They wanted to have freedom of assembly, speech, and press. They also wanted a constitutional government.
Nationalists wanted to unite, and divide into independent states, this would upset the changes the Congress of Vienna made.
Revolutions broke out to establish constitutional monarchies.
The Revolutions of 1848
The Second republic was established in France as a result of nationalist and liberal revolutions.
Germany promises Germanic States freedoms. They then tried to establish a constitution to unify Germany, but failed because they didn't enforce it.
Revolts begin in the Austrian Empire, Hungary and Bohemia are given their own governments.
Russia helps Austria put out rebels, revolutions are not a success.
Rebels tried to unify Italy against Austrian rule, but failed yet again.
Conservative rule was re-established because people were split between liberalism and conservatism. Even though the revolutions were not a success, nationalism and liberalism still continued to inspire many events.