Ball and Socket Joint
Ilona Ella Sydney
Bones involved in shoulder joint: humerus, clavicle
-that make up the joint of the shoulders: humerus, scapula
-that make up the joint of the hips: femur and hip bone
Types of Movement
1) Flexion-moves limb forward
2) Extension-moves limb backward
3) Adduction-moves limb toward body midline
4) Abduction-moves limb away from midline
5) External rotation-rotation of limb
6) Circumduction-moves limb in circle
Muscles that surround hip ball and socket joint, enabling movement:
-Gluteals: muscles of the buttocks, located on the back of the hip
-Adductor muscles: muscles of the inner thigh, which pull the leg inward toward the opposite leg
-Iliopsoas muscle: begins at the lower back and connects at the upper femur
-Quadriceps: on front of thigh and run from hip to knee
-Hamstrings: muscles on back of thigh and run from hip to just below the knee
Muscles that surround shoulder ball and socket joint, enabling movement:
-Deltoid muscle, above shoulder joint, works with supraspinatus muscle to abduct the arm at the shoulder
-Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, teres minor (They all originate at the scapula and insert at head of the humerus)
Muscles That Make up the Ball and Socket Joint
Ligaments Involved in the Joint
Hip: Iliofemoral--stretches from pelvis to femur
Pubofemoral--stretches from forward part of pelvis
Ischiofemoral--stretches from ischium and femur
Shoulder: Glenhumoral--(3) There's a superior, middle, and inferior glenhumoral
Coraco-acromial--goes from coracoid to acromion processes
Coraco-clavicular--around the clavicle coracoid of scapula
Transverse humeral--Between greater and lesser tubercle on humerus
~Hand swings in tennis
~All swimming strokes
~Throwing a baseball
~Shooting a basketball
Pathology: Common degenerative disorders, injuries and infectious processes
-Rotator cuff tendinitis
-Frozen shoulder (thicker and tighter joint capsules)
-Thoracic outlet syndromes (pressure on blood vessels around collarbone & first rib)
1) The shoulder ball and socket joint is the most mobile joint because we can move it in any direction
2) Due to the muscles and ligaments around the joint, the joint is very flexible, but very strong and stable so it can carry a lot of weight
3) The acetabulum (part of the pelvis) prevents dislocations by limiting femur movement
4) The ball and socket joint is considered a mulitiaxial joint because it's movements include: abduction, adduction, flexion, extension, circumduction.
5) The ball and socket joint looks exactly like it sounds: The ball (end of the femur or humerus) in a socket (part of the shoulder or hip)
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