Earth Science- Period 7
Mr. Taylor & Mrs.Rapoport
How hot is the sun?
The temperature of the sun varies tremendously, and not in ways you might realize.At the core of the sun, gravitational attraction produces immense pressure and temperature, which can reach more than 27 million degrees F (15 million degrees C).
How was the sun formed?
The sun must have started out as a large collapsing cloud of gas inside some ancient interstellar cloud. This cloud was 'polluted' by a supernova several million years before the collapse phase ended. The cloud collapsed for millions of years until it formed a rotating disk with a large central bulge. Out of the disk would eventually form the planets, and out of this central bulge where most of the mass wound up, formed the sun.
How old is the sun?
The Sun is abut 4.5 billion years old now.
How far away is the sun from the Earth?
The sun is at an average distance of about 93,000,000 miles (150 million kilometers) away from Earth.
How far away is the sun from the Moon?
The moon is about 150 million kilometers away from the sun. The moon can get even closer to the sun when the earth is at its closet point in orbit. This is when the moon is most distant from the Earth.
What kind of star is the sun?
According to their system of classification, the Sun is known as a yellow dwarf star. This group of stars are relatively small, containing between 80% and 100% the mass of the Sun. So the Sun is at the higher end of this group. The official designation is as a G V star.
How much layers does the sun have?
it has 6 layers which are, from inside towards the surface:
- Radiative zone
- Convective zone
When will the sun die out?
In about 5 billion years from now, the sun will begin to die. As the Sun grows old, it will expand. As the core runs out of hydrogen and then helium, the core will contact and the outer layers will expand, cool, and become less bright. It will become a red giant star. After this phase, the outer layers of the Sun will continue to expand. As this happens, the core will contract; the helium atoms in the core will fuse together, forming carbon atoms and releasing energy. The core will then be stable since the carbon atoms are not further compressible.Then the outer layers of the Sun drift off into space, forming a planetary nebula, exposing the core.Most of its mass will go to the nebula. The remaining Sun will cool and shrink; it will eventually be only a few thousand miles in diameter. The star is now a white dwarf, a stable star with no nuclear fuel. It radiates its left-over heat for billions of years. When its heat is all dispersed, it will be a cold, dark black dwarf - essentially a dead star.
What is the small dark spots on the sun?
Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the photosphere of the Sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to surrounding regions. They are caused by intense magnetic activity, which inhibits convection by an effect comparable to the eddy current brake, forming areas of reduced surface temperature. They usually appear as pairs, with each sunspot having the opposite magnetic pole to the other.
What color is the sun?
It is a common misconception that the Sun is yellow, or orange or even red. However, the Sun is essentially all colors mixed together, which appear to our eyes as white.