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Period One
8,000 BCE - 600 BCE

Period Two
600 BCE - 600 AD

Ali- (ibn Abi Talib) was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad

Axum- Capitol of the Kingdom of Aksum

Bantu Migration- series of migrations of the Bantu people from the Congo area to present day Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania.

Benin- country in West Africa

Caliph- chief Muslim civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor of Muhammad

Gao- city in Mali and the capital of the Gao Region

Great Zimbabwe- Capitol of the Kingdom of Zimbabwe during the country's Late Iron Age

Griots- a member of a class of traveling poets, musicians, and storytellers who maintain a tradition of oral history in parts of West Africa

Hausa States- a collection of states started by the Hausa people, situated between the Niger River and Lake Chad

Ibn Batuta- a Moroccan explorer of Berber descent; he is known for his extensive travels, accounts of which were published in the Rihla

Islamization- the process of a society's shift towards Islam

Jihad- Struggle against unbelievers in Islam or the internal struggle against sin

Mali- Wealthy African Kingdom, who monopolized the salt and gold trade

Sharia- law based on the teachings of the Qu’ran and the traditions of the Prophet

Songhay- a people living mainly in Niger and Mali

Sudanic States- a group of powerful states that developed south of the Sahara Desert between the A.D. 700s and 1500s

The Sahel- the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara Desert to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south

Timbuktu- (Yes, it’s an actual place) a city in the West African nation of Mali situated 20 km north of the River Niger on the southern edge of the Sahara Desert

Yoruba- a member of a people of southwestern Nigeria and Benin

Augustine of Hippo- was an early Christian theologian and philosopher whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy

Battle of Tours- was fought on October 10, 732 between forces under the Frankish leader Charles Martel and a massive invading Islamic army led by Emir Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi Abd al Rahman, near the city of Tours, France.

Charlemagne- (Woo!) was King of the Franks who united most of Western Europe during the Middle Ages and laid the foundations for modern France and Germany

Charles Martel- Frankish statesman and military leader who, as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death

Chivalry- the medieval knightly system with its religious, moral, and social code

Clovis- a Paleo-Indian culture of Central and North America, dated to about 11,500–11,000 years ago and earlier

Ferdinand and Isabella- A king and queen of Spain in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries; they united their country and sponsored the exploration of the New World by Christopher Columbus

Feudalism- the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection

Francis of Asissi- was an Italian Catholic friar and preacher. He founded the men's Order of Friars Minor, the women’s Order of St. Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis for men and women

Franks- a Germanic people that conquered Gaul in the 6th century and controlled much of western Europe for several centuries afterward

Guilds- a medieval association of craftsmen or merchants, often having considerable power

Holy Roman Empire- was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806

Hundred Years War- A war between France and England that lasted from the middle of the fourteenth century to the middle of the fifteenth; the kings of England invaded France, trying to claim the throne

Investiture- the action of formally investing a person with honors or rank

Magna Carta- was a charter issued by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215

Manorialism- Political, economic, and social system by which the peasants of medieval Europe were tied to their land and their lord through serfdom; the basic unit was the manor, a self-sufficient landed estate, or fief, under the control of a lord

Middle Ages- the period of European history from the fall of the Roman Empire in the West (5th century) to the fall of Constantinople (1453), or, more narrowly, from circa 1100 to 1453

Parliaments- the highest legislature, consisting of the sovereign, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons

Pope Urban II- (the most grunge pope eva’) is best known for initiating the First Crusade and setting up the modern-day Roman Curia in the manner of a royal ecclesiastical court to help run the Church

Roman Catholic Church- The branch of Christianity headed by the pope; the Roman Catholic Church is governed by a hierarchy with the pope at the top and, at the lower levels, bishops and priests

Serfs- an agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate

Three Estates- the three divisions of European society in the Middle Ages: the nobles (first estate), the clergy (second estate), and the commoners (third estate)

Vassals- a holder of land by feudal tenure on conditions of homage and allegiance

Vikings- any of the Scandinavian seafaring pirates and traders who raided and settled in many parts of northwestern Europe in the 8th–11th centuries

William the Conqueror- the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087

Anasazi- a member of an ancient American Indian people of the southwestern US, who flourished between circa 200 BC and AD 1500

Aztecs- the American Indian people dominant in Mexico before the Spanish conquest of the 16th century

Calpulli- an organizational unit below the level of the Altepetl "citystate"

Chinampas- method of Mesoamerican agriculture which used small, rectangular areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Valley of Mexico

Flowery Deaths- A bloody or “flowery” death, usually used to describe a death in a war setting

Hernan Cortes- a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire

Hopewell- the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from 200 BCE to 500 CE

Huacas- (Incan Religion) spirits that either inhabit or actually are physical phenomena such as waterfalls, mountains, or man-made shrines

Huayna Capac- the eleventh Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire and sixth of the Hanan dynasty

Huitzilopochtli- the son of Omecίhuatl and Ometecuhtli, respectively, the female and male aspects of the androgynous primordial god Ometeotl. In an alternative version, the god is the offspring of Coatlίcue, the supreme earth goddess

Inca- the largest empire in pre-Columbian America

Incan Socialism- a view created by Spanish authors to describe Inca society as a type of utopia

Metates- a flat or slightly hollowed oblong stone on which materials such as grain and cocoa are ground using a smaller stone

Mita- mandatory public service in the society of the Inca Empire

Pachacuti- ninth Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco which he transformed into the empire Tawantinsuyu or the Inca Empire

Pipiltin- the noble social class in the Mexica Empire

Pochteca- professional, long-distance traveling merchants in the Aztec Empire

Quipu- ancient Inca device for recording information, consisting of variously colored threads knotted in different ways

Split Inheritance- the process in which a ruler's chosen successor obtained all political power and rights, while the dead ruler maintained control over all the lands he had conquered during his life

Tambos- an Incan structure built for administrative and military purposes.

Temple of the Sun- used to celebrate Inti, god of the sun in Macchu Pichu

Tenochitlan- Aztec altepetl located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico

Tlacaelel- the principal architect of the Aztec Triple Alliance and hence the Mexica empire

Tihuanaco and Huari- the capital of an empire that extended into present-day Peru and Chile, flourishing from AD 300 to 1000; Indian people of western Mato Grosso, Brazil

Toltecs- a member of an American Indian people that flourished in Mexico before the Aztecs

Topac Yupanqui- the tenth Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire, and fifth of the Hanan dynasty. His father was Pachacuti, and his son was Huayna Capac

Twantinsuyu- what the Incans called their empire

Viracocha- the great creator god in the pre-Inca and Inca mythology in the Andes region of South America

Yanas- a North American Indian people who once resided in the eastern portion of the upper Sacramento River valley in California

Period Three
600 AD - 1450 AD

Period Four
1450 AD - 1750 AD

Period 5
1750 AD - 1900 AD

Period 6
1900 AD - Present

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