Abiotic vs. Biotic

Biotic-                                            Abiotic-

turtles                                             water

sharks                                           50 quadrillion tons of salt

coral                                               sand

plankton                                         sunlight

algae                                              rock                                                                        clown fish                                      seashells

other saltwater fish                         surface temp. 62.6 degrees Fahrenheit


Carrying Capacity

Carrying capacity is how many organisms can live in an environment depending on the amount of resources available. ex: water, food, & shelter. As the resources begin to decrease the population of the organism decreases to. If the resources begin to increase the population does too.

Limiting Factors

Limiting factors are features in the environment that reduce the amount of resources available. ex: little shelter & little to no food. A shark & fish for example, if there are less sharks there will be more fish. If there are more sharks then there will be less fish.

Energy Roles

Each organisms receives energy from other organism or the sun.

Producers receive energy from the sun such as these

  • seaweed
  • phytoplankton
  • coral
  • kelp
  • algea

Consumers receive energy from either the producers (herbivores) or other organism (carnivores and omnivores) or eat dead animals they find (scavengers)

  • clown fish
  • shark
  • sea turtle
  • surgeon fish
  • pin fish

Decomposers are organisms that break down dead organisms to receive energy.  

  • crab
  • bacteria
  • sea slugs
  • fungus
  • brittle stars

Producers are important to an ecosystem because the energy originates from them.

Food web vs. Food chains

The food web is more realistic because organisms usually eat more than one other organism and are eaten by more than one organism.

If I  were to remove the krill from the food web then the squid would only lower a bit, and the cod would slowly die off from lack of food causing other organisms to decrease day by day.

Energy Pyramid

The energy pyramid is used to show how the energy decreases from organism to organism. The producers are in the bottom because they have the most energy and the top producer is on the top to show they have the least energy.


Chemical Equation: CO2+H2O=C6H12O6+O2                                                                                

Water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide is needed for photosynthesis; this produces glucose and oxygen.

Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast of the plants cells.

Radiant energy from the sun is taken to the plant that then forms into chemical energy for food.


Tropism is when a plant grows toward or away from a stimulus. One example of this is seaweed, a free floating plant, that grows toward the sun.

This helps the plant survive by allowing a plant to grow toward something that protects or provides it with food. Or allowing it to grow away from dangers.


Decomposers are important to an ecosystem because they break down materials and produce nutrients needed. If there were no decomposers then all the plants would die then, and there would be no oxygen to breath. A few examples of decomposers in the ocean are, the hag fish, shrimp, and plankton.


Adaptations are important because it allows an animal to change accordingly to the environment. An example to adaptations is if the ocean were to change from hot to cold the organisms of the environment would be adaptable, and if not they would die off.  

Natural Selection

Natural Selection: If an organism can or can't adapt to stay alive. An example of this is the octopus. The octopus was being eaten and a way it adapted was by being able to camouflage itself, and also change the texture of it's skin. This animal can also squirt ink if it doesn't detect enemies fast enough.

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