Ecosystem Portfolio #ecosystemport
Biotic and Abiotic
Urban ecosystems contain many, many abiotic and biotic factors such as...
(biotic) Perigin Falcon, this falcon lives on every continent except antarctica and can fly up to speeds of 200 miles an hour, and they live on the ledges of skyscrapers in the urban environment.
(abiotic) Air, air is found everywhere on earth and the air in the urban environment can be Carnivores eat meat. A carnivore is a predator because it has to find and catch its prey. Some carnivores, such as wolves, hunt in a group called a pack. They move silently and slowly to form a circle around their prey before they attack.contaminated by smog, fuel and lights due to their over-usage in the city.
(biotic) Humans, humans (such as my self) are one of the only animals to be found on every continent including antarctica and one of the most intelligent organisms on our earth. Many humans call the urban ecosystem their home
(abiotic) Water, water is one of the many things keeping us alive and is found everywhere including the city. Water can be found in the air, the clouds, modern fountains and even our bodies!
(biotic) One more biotic factor found in the city are pigeons. While pigeons have a bad reputation for being fat, surprisingly pigeons are the only birds that feed milk. Pigeons live on ledges, bridges and buildings in urban cities.
Limiting Factors / Predator Prey
Limiting factors are the factors such as natural distasters or droughts. These factors limit the survival of organisms in the urban environment. For example, if a large earthquake were to occur, the buildings in the city would colapse and the falcons homes would be destroyed which would force them to VERY quickly find new homes or else many would die. Not only are there limiting factors in the urban environment, but there are also predator prey realationships. A realationship such as the falcon/ mouse realationship is one where one is predator and one is prey. Falcons consume the mice to recieve their energy.
Carrying capacity is how a population changes over time depending on the resources presented. For example, if water levels decreased, the falcons and pigeons would die off in large numbers until the levels returned to their original state. Another example would be if pigeons died off. If this happend, then perigin falcons populations would decrease due to the level of their prey.
Kinds of Organisms?
Examples of animals specific to the urban environment are...... Pigeons, (omnivore) pigeons eat insects and a few kinds of plant life in the urban environment. Another example of specific animals are stray animals. Stray animals (omnivores) forage off of the city grounds and eat animal remains and leftover human foods. One last example of specfic animals are squirrels. Squirrels are herbavores and eat fruits and nuts commenly found in the city. An example of producers found in the city are trees. Trees convert sunlight and water into chemical energy for food. All of these organisms get their energy from the food and energy taken in from other biotic and abiotic factors. Producers in the urban environment turn sun and chemical energy into carbon dioxide and oxygen for the consumers to breath.An example of a herbivore in the urban envioronment is a cicada. Cicadas feed on small leaves of plant life and are commonly eaten by pigeons. An example of a carnivore in the urban environment is a perigin falcon. Perigin falcons eat mice, small birds and other small rodents.
Food Chains Vs. Food Webs
In the urban environment, food chains, while they may be easily found, are less realistic than a food web. I say this because when in any environment, there are more and more animals and producers that can be put into webs rather than chains. If one population were removed from the envioronment, the prey they previously hunted would rise and their predators would fall in population.
The energy pyramid shows the energy loss per level.
Its a pyramid shape to show the 90% loss per level. The bottom of the pyramid represents producers because of the amount of energy they receive from the sun in comparison of the energy received from other organisms.
Photosynthesis is the process of a plant (producer) turning sun light (radiant energy) into sugars, or glucose for food. Photosynthesis occurs in the leaves of the plant after receiving appropriate light and water from the roots to convert into sugars. Chloroplasts in the leaves make the process possible, and chlorofyl, or pigment found in the cells make the leaves green.
Tropism is a way a plant grows towards or away a resource. An example would be if there was a vine on a wall in a city, and the vine was to grow towards the light of the sun for survival. IF the vines didn't grow like this, they would receive fewer levels of light and wouldn't be able to produce enough glucose to survive.
A decomposer is an organism that decomposes, or breaks down living material such as dead animals. Without the breakdown of dead organisms, there would be dead animals lying everywhere and gases produced in the bodies would endanger other organisms. Examples of decomposers found in the urban ecosystem is mushrooms. Mushrooms decompose dead animal matter by using chemicals found in the cap, or top of the mushroom.