Erik Erikson was a German-born American psychologist who mainly studied the psychological development of people. He died in 1994, at age 91.
Erikson belonged to the psychoanalysis school of thought. Although, he mainly studied the developmental process in humans, mostly children. It was Sigmund Freud's daughter, Anna Freud, who noticed how well he worked with children. Erikson passed through many "eras," namely the Victorian era and the Modern era.
Erikson is credited for first using the term "Identity Crisis." He was a very important person to psychology, and set Freudian into a quantum leap. We wouldn't be where we are in Developmental Psychology without him.
One thing that really sticks out to me is that he was one of the first psychologists to say that children are not biological organisms that live on, but that they rather develop in the way of society's expectations.