Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonds

Ionic Bonds: An ionic bond is a chemical link between two atoms caused by the electrostatic force between oppositely charged ions in an ionic compound. NaCl (table salt) is an example of a compound with an ionic bond. Most substances with ionic bonds usually appear to be powdery or granular, are soluble in water, have high melting points, are not conductive as solids, and are conductive as a liquid or when dissolved in water.


Covalent Bonds: A chemical link between two atoms that share electrons between them is called a covalent bond. An example of a substance with a covalent bond is the bond between hydrogen and oxygen in a water molecule. The majority of substances with covalent bonds are powdery or granular, soluble in water, have a low melting point, and are not conductive as solids, liquids, or when dissolved in water.


Metallic Bonds: Metallic bonding occurs when electrons freely move around a metal lattice and form a bond between the metals. An example of a metallic bond is in the element Cobalt (Co). In most situations, substances with metallic bonds are shiny, not soluble in water, have high melting points, and are conductive in solid and liquid form.

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