The Muslim Empire
Started in the 6th century when Mohammad created Islam and ended in the 19th century.
The Muslim Empire Information
The Muslim Empire started in Mecca, but the empire grew when it expanded East to India, then West across North Africa and on into Spain. The map above spans over a time period of 622 AD to 750 AD. The empire grew due to military conquest. They were great fighters. They believed that if they died in battle, they would go directly to heaven. Also, they treated the people the conquered fairly, so sometimes they people would just let them in if their lives would be better with them there. It took only about 100 years to expand most of their empire.
At one point in history, the Muslims wanted to expand their empire past Spain and move into France and go into western Europe. However, a group of people known as the Franks didn't like that idea and fought the Muslims in Southern France. In 732 AD, the French Christians, under Charles Martel, defeated the Muslims and stopped them from advancing into Europe.
The Islamic Empire had a golden age from about the 7th century to about the 9th century that was filled with great learning and cultural diffusion. Also, many contributions come from this time period.
One achievement came in mathematics. They spread the Gupta Empire's math ideas of the concept of zero, Arabic Numbers, and the decimal system, but they also created algebra and trigonometry, which trigonometry is shown above. Another achievement came in astronomy. They learned some of it from Greek ideas, but they also created astronomical tables which can be seen above.
In medicine, their knowledge was based mainly from Greece, Rome and Persia. They created hospitals and wrote medical textbooks. Also, their doctors had to pass exams in order to practice medicine. Their architecture was influenced by the Byzantine Empire and Indian style. They had a type of banking going on as well. They used money and they allowed credit to be used.
They also had Islamic Laws that were based upon their religious book, the Qur'an. These became the basis for the political laws in their empire.
One great thing the Muslim Empire did was preserve the Greek and Roman culture, and they didn't just preserve them, they also improved upon them.
The Muslim Empire started declining when a rise of the West happened. The Mongols invaded the Empire and destroyed much of their literary work and manuscripts. By 1492, the Muslim Empire of Spain was destroyed. Then after awhile of more invasions and economic problems, the empire fell in the 19th century.