By: Gabriela Harari, Valerie Guberek and Isaac Aboo


Time Period

In the 1200s, the Incas established a kingdom. The incan empire reach the highest of its glory in the early 1500s during the reign of Huayna Capac. In the 1520s, Huayna Capac undertook Ecuador, and later he got a disease and died.


Govern system divided families into groups of 10,100 and 10,000. A chief lead the group and it was part of a chain and command.
The Inca Empire was consisted of a central government with the Inca at its head and four quarters: Chincha Suyuyu , Anti Suyu, Kunti Suyu, and Qualla Suyu
- Chinchasuyu was the northwestern provincial region of the Inca Empire
- Anti Suyu was the eastern part of the Inca Empire.
- Kunti Suyu was the southwestern provincial region of the Inca Empire.
- Qualla Suyu was the southeastern provincial region of the Inca Empire.
Before attacking they offered enemies states as an honorable surrender, and allow them  to keep their customs, and religion, and in exchange they wanted loyalty.
Pachacuti was the leader. He was the combination of diplomacy (negotiation of allies, treaties, and agreement)

There was almost no crime in the Inca Empire. Inca laws were very harsh with their punishments. If you insulted the Inca, cursed the gods, or committed a murder, you were thrown off a cliff.  If you were caught stealing or cheating, you either had your hands cut off or your.


-The Incas economy was based on trade and services.

-For taxes the incas used their crops. They sent some of there crops to the king.

- Incas life came from the Spanish invaders who effectively wiped them out.

- The Inca as master builders and land planners, capable of extremely sophisticated mountain agriculture and building cities to match.

- The major products for trade where squash, sweet potatoes, and fruits like pineapples and papaya.

beliefs & religion

- The Inca worshipped the dead, ancestors, founding culture heroes, the king, and nature.

- Inca society was a theocratic society, meaning that politics and religion were completely intertwined. The Inca religion combined features of animism, fetishism, and the worship of nature gods representing forces of nature. Inca rituals included elaborate forms of divination and the sacrifice of humans and animals.


The Incas had no iron or steel, but they had developed an alloy of bronze superior to that of their enemies and contemporary Mesoamericans. The Incas introduced to South America the tin/copper alloy which is today commonly associated with "Bronze Age" metallurgy.

The Incan calendar was important to the ancient Incas for religious reasons. Each calendar month hosted a different religious festival. The Incan calendar was divided into 12 months. Each month was divided into 3 weeks. Each week had 10 days.


Quipus (ancient scripts) were a tool used by the Inca Empire to communicate some kinds of information throughout the Inca Empire. A quipu is essentially a group of wool and cotton strings tied together. The strings are dyed in many different colors, and they are joined together in many different manners and they have a wide variety and number of knots tied in them

Art & Architecture

The Incas laid out their cities in a grid. Each city had a central plaza and it was surrounded by public buildings and temples. A palace was built for visiting the leader of the Inca people. There was housing for priests and nobles. Houses were even built for the common people.
The military checked everyone coming in or out of the cities. The cities were very safe.

Not a lot is known about the Inca for certain. However the one thing that is known is that they have exceptional architectural skills. To this day, there is a lot of speculation about how the Inca were able to create the amount of precision seen in their stone cutting.


Inca society did not practice slavery, at least in the usual interpretation of the word. It is only very late that we find the emperor and his governors tearing people from their homes and settling them on their own estates. Tributes could not be paid in money, since its use was not known. Gold and silver were thought of only as raw materials for the purpose of making ornaments or religious objects. The Incas would certainly be able to take part of other peoples crops. The Incas, as local country chieftains, had had a right to get a person to work for free on the repair of roads and to the personal services of the peasants.


The most inspiring contribution of Inca contribution to society today is in architecture. Incan architecture did not have the difference of the Mayan, with its profuse decoration; nor had it the emotional impact of the Aztec; but Incan engineering and structural daring--the concept of its cities.

Rise and Fall

The Inca Civilization lasted for three hundred years from the 13th to the 16th century. Getting a true picture of Inca history is difficult because the Incas had no written language and passed their history down orally from one generation to the next. 
What we know about the Incas has been pieced together from archaeological evidence and the oral history still present in Peru.
For the first 200 years the Inca were a small group of people; however around 1438 the Emperor Pachacutec's aggressive military expansion turned the Inca civilization into the most powerful nation in South America.  Pachacutec's rule is generally accepted to be the starting point of the Inca Empire that would reign for the next two generations. After the death of Pachacutec's successor, the Inca Empire was split into two, each led by one of the Emperor's sons.  The division eventually led to a civil war that wouldn't be resolved until 1532; the same year the Spanish conquistadors arrived and brought down the incan civilization.

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