Mexico, now considered a part of North America rather than Central America, is a country that runs along the United States' southwestern border. Guatemala and Belize share Mexico's southern borders. Spread over 756,000 square miles and with a population of more than 120 million people, Mexico is the third-largest North American country and has the second-highest population. The nation's capital, Mexico City, Sixty percent of Mexico's inhabitants are mestizo and about 30% are indigenous peoples. Caucasians and other groups make up the remaining 10%. Spanish is the most widely used language, although Mayan dialects are also spoken. the expecting life in Mexico is 76 years old
The Sierra Madre Occidental range runs north to south, from the Sonora-Arizona border southeast through Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Durango, Zacatecas, Nayarit, Jalisco, Augascalientes to Guanajuato, where it joins the Sierra Madre del Sur and the Transverse Volcanic Axis of central Mexico.
These steep mountains are cut through with canyons, including Copper Canyon, the deepest in North America. The highest point is Cerro Mohinora at 10,662 ft (3,250 m) Sierra Madre del Sur is a mountain range in southern Mexico, extending 1,000 m from southern Michoacan east through Guerrero to eastern Oaxaca.
Coastal Plains:The lies to the east of the Sierra Madre Occidental range fronting the Gulf of Mexico.The very narrow Coastal Plain along the Pacific Ocean coastline rises quickly into the foothills of the mountains, while the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean coastlines are wider and rise gently into the interior.
Plateaus:The Central Mexican Plateau consumes much of northern and central Mexico. It extends from the border with the USA on the north to the Cordillera Neovolcanica in the south, with the Sierra Madre Occidental mountain range on the west and the Sierra Madre Oriental on the east. It averages 5,988 ft (1,825 m) above sea level and is covered mostly by deserts and xeric shrublands.
Volcanos:A long line of ancient volcanoes (many still active) extends from the Pacific Ocean (north of Guadalajara) on eastward to the Gulf of Mexico, just to the south of Veracruz. Pico de Orizaba Volcano, the third highest mountain in North America, is located here.
Peninsulas:The mountainous Baja Peninsula extends about 750 miles (1,200 km) south from the U.S. border. Mexico's limestone Yucatan Peninsula is tree-covered, with thick tropical jungles along its borders with Central America countries. The Yucatan Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. It is east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, which is a geographic partition separating Central America from the rest of North America.
Rivers:Mexico has nearly 150 rivers; most are small, unnavigable, and 70% drain into the Pacific Ocean. Some of the large rivers include the Balsas, Conchos, Grijalva, Panuco, Papaloapan and Usumacinta. The Rio Grande, rising in the San Juan Mountains of the U.S. State of Colorado, flows generally south to the Gulf of Mexico for 1,885 miles (3,000 km) and forms much of Mexico's northern border with the United States. The two largest lakes in the country of Mexico are Lake Chapala and Lake Cuitzeo.
Mexico is a beautiful country located south of the Unites States border. It’s a great place to explore and experience a culture that reflects the complexity of the country’s past through the fusion of pre-Hispanic civilizations and Spanish culture during Spain’s 300-year colonization of Mexico. Being one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world, there are many things to see and do in Mexico. For the adventurous types that enjoy taking in a country’s history, go hiking through the jungles and experience the many Mesoamerican ruins that have remained mostly intact and were built many years ago when numerous other cultures thrived before the Europeans arrived during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. For the more leisurely types, Mexico has some of the most beautiful costal areas in the world with many resort cities offering posh hotels right on white sands bathed in the beautiful blue ocean. Cabo San Lucas, on the tip of Baja California, offers some of the best fishing in the world with Marlin, Tuna, Swordfish, and Dorado swimming through its waters looking for a fight with a local fisherman. Other water activities coastal towns commonly offer include swimming, snorkeling, jet skiing, and parasailing. And if all of this activity isn’t enough for you, there is the great Mexican cuisine. A mixture of corn and beans fused with rice when the Spanish arrived, all flavored with a mixture of exotic spices, fruits, vegetables, and meats create a variety of mouth watering dishes for you and your family to enjoy. So if you are looking for a relaxing, adventurous, or romantic experience that is also cosmopolitan and captivating, then visit Mexico.
- bodies of water
- major cities
Mexico City is Mexico's capital and largest city and one of the world's major cities. See the article on Mexico City. Guadalajara Mexico's second largest city and the capital of Jalisco state, is a major industrial and commercial city, a popular tourist center, and a hub of transportation. Monterrey, the capital of Nuevo León state, is an important industrial center and the chief city of northern Mexico. Puebla (Puebla de Zaragoza), the capital of Puebla state, once known primarily for its textiles, now produces automobiles, petrochemicals, and iron and steel. The city is also famed for its many churches.León is an industrial city of central Mexico and the heart of the country's shoe production. Ciudad Juárez, situated on the Rio Grande, and Tijuana, in northern Baja California, are both commercial cities with large tourist industries. Mexicali, is the capital of the state of Baja California Norte. Acapulco, a famed resort city, is situated on the Pacific coast of southern Mexico. Veracruz is Mexico's chief port on the Gulf of Mexico. Government Mexico is a federal republic composed of 31 states and the Federal District of Mexico City. The government is based on the Constitution of 1917. The head of state and government is the president, who is elected for a single 6-year term. The legislative body is the Congress, made up of the Senate, whose members are elected for six years, and the Chamber of Deputies, which is elected for three years. The third branch of government is the judiciary, or court system. The federal judiciary is headed by the Supreme Court, whose members are appointed by the president, subject to approval by the Senate. Each state government has its own elected governor and legislature. The state governments have authority over local matters.
Most climate in Mexico has sunny weather for a large part of the year. The cloudiest regions are the wetter parts of the east coast and the northern part of the Pacific coast, where low cloud and fog are formed over the cold ocean current. The drier regions of the interior and much of the tierra templada have high amounts of sunshine: as much as seven or eight hours a day in the drier months to five or six during the wetter season. The table for Guaymas is representative of the drier northwest of the country. Conditions in the interior are represented by the tables for Monterrey and Mexico City; these show a larger daily range of temperature. Monterrey is at the upper limit of the tierra caliente, while Mexico City is typical of the tierra fria. Did you know? The Mexicans, Mexico really means Mexico City. It is referred to as “La replica Mexicana”. The table for Mérida, in northern Yucatan, Acapulco and Salina Cruz, on the Pacific coast in the south, show the higher and typically tropical temperatures of the southern lowlands. Mérida is wetter than some parts of Yucatan. The combination of heat and humidity can be rather uncomfortable during the wet season. Otherwise most of Mexico has a healthy and reasonably pleasant climate for most of the year. At the altitude of Mexico City and above, visitors may take a few days to adjust to the lower atmospheric pressure as sudden exertion can lead to breathlessness. On the higher parts of the plateau the sun may at times feel very powerful by day and the rapid drop of temperature at night may strike very chilly. Both the east and west coasts of Mexico are occasionally affected by tropical storms that develop in the Caribbean or the Pacific and bring two or three days of heavy rain. These are most likely to occur in the months August to October. Very few of these reach the strength of fully developed hurricanes; if they do, the east-coast districts are more liable to severe damage.
The culture of Mexico has changed fast during the 19th and 20th centuries. In many ways, contemporary life in its cities has become similar to that in neighboring United States and Europe. Most Mexican villagers follow the older way of life more than the city people do. More than 45 percent of the people in Mexico live in cities of over 50,000 inhabitants. Large metropolitan areas include Mexico City, Guadalajara, Monterrey, and Puebla-Tlaxcala, while rural areas include small areas throughout Chiapas, Oaxaca, Guerrero, Sonora, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas, Yucatán, Aguascalientes, Michoacán, and many more. The Spanish arrival and colonization brought Roman Catholicism to the country, which became the main religion of Mexico, however, Mexico has no official religion, and the Constitution of 1917 and the anti-clerical laws imposed limitations on the church and sometimes codified state intrusion into church matters. The government does not provide any financial contributions to the church, and the church does not participate in public education. The last census reported, by self-ascription, that 94.5% of the population is Christian. Roman Catholics are 89% of the total , 47% percent of whom attend church services weekly. In absolute terms, Mexico has the world's second largest number of Catholics after Brazil. According to the Government's 2000 census, approximately 87 percent of respondents identified themselves as at least nominally Roman Catholic. Other religious groups for which the 2000 census provided estimates included evangelicals, with 1.71 percent of the population; other Protestant evangelical groups, 2.79 percent; members of Jehovah's Witnesses, 1.25 percent; "historical" Protestants, 0.71 percent; Seventh-day Adventists, 0.58 percent; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 0.25 percent; Jews, 0.05 percent; and other religions, 0.31 percent. Approximately 3.52 percent of respondents indicated no religion, and 0.86 percent did not specify a religion. Museo Soumaya (Museum Soumaya) the last mural by Diego Rivera Mexico is known for its folk art traditions, mostly derived from the indigenous and Spanish crafts. Pre-Columbian art thrived over a wide timescale, from 1800 BC to AD 1500. Certain artistic characteristics were repeated throughout the region, namely a preference for angular, linear patterns, and three-dimensional ceramics. Notable handicrafts include clay pottery from the valley of Oaxaca and the village of Tonala. Colorfully embroidered cotton garments, cotton or wool shawls and outer garments, and colorful baskets and rugs are seen everywhere. Mexico is also known for its pre-Columbian architecture, especially for public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures. Between the Spanish colonial era and the early 20th century, Mexican fine arts were largely influenced by European traditions. After the Mexican Revolution, a new generation of Mexican artists led a vibrant national movement that incorporated political, historic, and folk themes in their work. The painters Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siqueiros became world famous for their grand murals, often displaying clear social messages. Rufino Tamayo and Frida Kahlo produced more personal works with abstract elements. Mexican art photography largely fostered by the work of Manuel Álvarez Bravo. A late 18th-century painting of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Mexican poet and writer. The literature of Mexico has its antecedents in the literatures of the indigenous settlements of Mesoamerica. The most well known prehispanic poet is Netzahualcoyotl. Modern Mexican literature was influenced by the concepts of the Spanish colonialization of Mesoamerica. Outstanding colonial writers and poets include Juan Ruiz de Alarcón and Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. Other writers include Alfonso Reyes, José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi, Ignacio Manuel Altamirano, Maruxa Vilalta, Carlos Fuentes, Octavio Paz (Nobel Laureate), Renato Leduc, Jaime Labastida, Mariano Azuela ("Los de abajo") and Juan Rulfo ("Pedro Páramo"). Bruno Traven, from German origin, assimilated into the Mexican culture and wrote "Canasta de cuentos mexicanos", "El tesoro de la Sierra Madre." Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world. The overwhelming majority of Mexicans today speak Spanish, however, the government recognizes 62 indigenous Amerindian languages as national languages. Some Spanish vocabulary in Mexico has roots in the country's indigenous languages, which are spoken by approximately 6% of the population. Some indigenous Mexican words have even become common in other languages, such as the English language. For instance, the words tomato, chocolate, coyote, and avocado are Nahuatl in origin.El Castillo, Chichen ItzaMexico City Metropolitan Cathedral With thirty-two sites, Mexico has more sites on the UNESCO World Heritage list than any other country in the Americas, most of which pertain to the country's architectural history. Mesoamerican architecture in Mexico is best known for its public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures, several of which are the largest monuments in the world. Mesoamerican architecture is divided into three eras, Pre-Classic, Classic, and Post-Classic. Architect Frank Lloyd Wright is reputed to have declared the Puuc-style architecture of the Maya as the best in the Western Hemisphere. The Spanish Colonial Style dominated in early colonial Mexico. During the late 17th century to 1750, one of Mexico's most popular architectural styles was Mexican Churrigueresque, which combined Amerindian and Moorish decorative influences. The Academy of San Carlos, founded in 1788, was the first major art academy in the Americas. The academy promoted Neoclassicism, focusing on Greek and Roman art and architecture. Second Mexican Empire, Maximilian I installed emperor of Mexico. This intervention, financed largely by France, was brief, but it began a period of French influence in architecture and culture which lasted well into the 20th century. After the Mexican Revolution in 1917, idealization of the indigenous and the traditional symbolized attempts to reach into the past and retrieve what had been lost in the race toward modernization. Functionalism, expressionism, and other schools left their imprint on a large number of works in which Mexican stylistic elements have been combined with European and North American techniques, most notably the work of Pritzker Prize winner Luis Barragán. Enrique Norten, the founder of TEN Arquitectors, has been awarded several honors for his work in modern architecture. His work express a modernity that reinforces the government's desire to present a new image of Mexico as an industrialized country with a global presence. Other notable and emerging contemporary architects include Mario Schjetnan, Michel Rojkind, Tatiana Bilbao, Isaac Broid Zajman and Bernardo Gómez-Pimienta, Luis Vicente Flores, Alberto Kalach, Daniel Alvarez, and José Antonio Aldrete-Haas.Cinema The history of Mexican cinema dates to the beginning of the 20th century, when several enthusiasts of the new medium documented historical events – most particularly the Mexican Revolution. The Golden Age of Mexican cinema is the name given to the period between 1935 and 1959, where the quality and economic success of the cinema of Mexico reached its peak. Present-day film makers include Alejandro González Iñárritu (Amores perros, Babel), Alfonso Cuarón (Children of Men, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban), Guillermo del Toro (Pan's Labyrinth), Carlos Reygadas (Stellet Licht), screenwriter Guillermo Arriaga and owners Guillermo Navarro and Emmanuel Lubezki. Municipal president giving the "grito" of "Viva Mexico" at the commencement of Independence Day festivities in 2008 Mexicans celebrate their independence from Spain on September 16, and other holidays with festivals known as "Fiestas". Many Mexican cities, towns and villages hold a yearly festival to commemorate their local patron saints. During these festivities, the people pray and burn candles to honor their saints in churches decorated with flowers and colorful utensils. They also hold large parades, fireworks, dance competitions, beauty pageant contest, party and buy refreshments in the market places and public squares. In the smaller towns and villages, soccer, and boxing are also celebrated during the festivities. Skulls made of amaranto, given during the Day of the Dead festival. Other festivities include Día de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe ("Guadalupe Day"), Las Posadas ("The Shelters", celebrated on December 16 to December 24), Noche Buena ("Holy Night", celebrated on December 24), Navidad ("Christmas", celebrated on December 25) and Año Nuevo ("New Years Day", celebrated on December 31 to January 1). "Guadalupe Day" is regarded by many Mexicans as the most important religious holiday of their country. It honours the Virgin of Guadalupe, the patron saint of Mexico, which is celebrated on December 12. In the last decade, all the celebrations happening from mid December to the beginning of January have been linked together in what has been called the Guadalupe-Reyes Marathon. A piñata is made from papier-mache. It is created to look like popular people, animals, or fictional characters. Once made it is painted with bright colors and filled with candy or small toys. It is then hung from the ceiling. The children are blindfolded and take turns hitting the piñata until it breaks open and the candy and small toys fall out. The children then gather the candy and small toys. Mole poblano is considered Mexico's plato nacional Chiles en nogada, a popular dish from Mexico Mexican cuisine is known for its blending of Indigenous and European cultures, and to a lesser extent, African and Asian. The cuisine was inscribed in 2010 on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO Traditionally, the main Mexican ingredients consisted of maize, beans, both red and white meats, potatoes, tomatoes, seafood, chili peppers, squash, nuts, avocados and various herbs native to Mexico. Popular dishes include tacos, enchiladas, mole sauce, atole, tamales, and pozole. Popular beverages include water flavored with a variety of fruit juices, and cinnamon-flavored hot chocolate prepared with milk or water and blended until it becomes frothed using a traditional wooden tool called a molinillo. Alcoholic beverages native to Mexico include mescal, pulque, and tequila. Mexican beer is also popular in Mexico and are exported. There are international award-winning Mexican wineries that produce and export wine. The most important and frequently used spices in Mexican cuisine are chili powder, cumin, oregano, cilantro, epazote, cinnamon, and cocoa. Chipotle, a smoked-dried jalapeño pepper, is also common in Mexican cuisine. Many Mexican dishes also contain onions and garlic, which are also some of Mexico's staple foods. Next to corn, rice is the most common grain in Mexican cuisine. According to food writer Karen Hursh Graber, the initial introduction of rice to Spain from North Africa in the 14th century led to the Spanish introduction of rice to Mexico at the port of Veracruz in the 1520s. This, Graber says, created one of the earliest instances of the world's greatest Fusion cuisine's. In Southeastern Mexico, especially in the Yucátan, spicy vegetable and meat dishes are common. The cuisine of Southeastern Mexico has quite a bit of Caribbean influence, given its geographical location. Seafood is commonly prepared in the states that border the Pacific Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico, the latter having a famous reputation for its fish dishes, à la veracruzana. In contemporary times, various world cuisines have become popular in Mexico, thus adopting a Mexican fusion. For example, sushi in Mexico is often made by using a variety of sauces based on mango and tamarind, and very often served with serrano-chili blended soy sauce, or complemented with vinegar, habenero peppers and chipotle peppers. Chocolate originated in Mexico and was prized by the Aztecs. It remains an important ingredient in Mexican cookery. Danza de los Voladores de Papantla, a ritual dance in Veracruz, Mexico performed by the Totonacs. Jarabe Tapatío in the traditional China Poblana dress. The foundation of Mexican music comes from its indigenous sounds and heritage. The original inhabitants of the land, used drums, flutes, maracas, sea shells and voices to make music and dances. This ancient music is still played in some parts of Mexico. However, much of the traditional contemporary music of Mexico was written during and after the Spanish colonial period, using many old world influenced instruments. Many traditional instruments, such as the Mexican vihuela used in Mariachi music, were adapted from their old world predecessors and are now considered very Mexican. Mexican society enjoys a vast array of music genres, showing the diversity of Mexican culture. Traditional music includes Mariachi, Banda, Norteño, Ranchera and Corridos. Mexicans also listen to contemporary music such as pop and Mexican rock. Mexico has the largest media industry in Latin America, producing Mexican artists who are famous in Central and South America and parts of Europe. Folk songs called corridos have been popular in the country since the early nineteen hundreds. It may tell the story about the Mexican Revolution, pride, Mestizo, romance, poverty, politics or crime. Today, musical groups known as Mariachis perform along streets, festivals and restaurants. A Mariachi group includes singers, guitar, trumpets, violin and marimba players. The most prominent Mariachi group is Vargas de Tecalitlán, which was originally formed in 1897. Other styles of traditional regional music in México: Son Jarocho (Veracruz, with guitars and harp), Huapango or Son Huasteco (Huasteca, northeastern regions, violin and two guitars known as quinta huapanguera and jarana), Tambora (Sinaloa, mainly brass instruments) Duranguense, Jarana (most of the Yucatán peninsula) and Norteña (North style, redoba and accordion). Folk dances are a feature of Mexican culture. Significant in dance tradition is the "Jarabe Tapatío", known as "Mexican hat dance". Traditional dancers perform a sequence of hopping steps, heel and toe tapping movements. Among the most known "classical" composers: Manuel M. Ponce ("Estrellita"), Revueltas, Jordá (Elodia), Ricardo Castro, Juventino Rosas ("Sobre las olas"), Carrillo (Sonido 13), Ibarra, Pablo Moncayo (Huapango) and Carlos Chávez. Popular composers includes: Agustín Lara, Consuelo Velázquez ("Bésame mucho"), "Guty" Cárdenas, José Alfredo Jiménez, Armando Manzanero, Luis Arcaraz, Álvaro Carrillo, Joaquín Pardavé and Alfonso Ortiz Tirado. Traditional Mexican music has influenced the evolution of the Mexican pop and Mexican rock genre. Some well-known Mexican pop singers are Luis Miguel and Alejandro Fernández. Latin rock musicians such as Carlos Santana, Café Tacuba and Caifanes have incorporated Mexican folk tunes into their music. Traditional Mexican music is still alive in the voices of artists such as Eugenia León and Lila Downs. Sport The traditional national sport of Mexico is Charreria, which consists of a series of equestrian events. The national horse of Mexico, used in Charreria, is the Azteca. Bullfighting, a tradition brought from Spain, is also popular. Mexico has the largest venue for bullfighting in the world - The Plaza de toros in Mexico City which seats 48,000 people. Football team sport in Mexico. Most states have their own representative football teams. Among the country's significant teams include Chivas de Guadalajara, Club América, Cruz Azul, and Pumas de la UNAM. Notable players include Hugo Sánchez, Claudio Suárez, Luis Hernández, Francisco Palencia, Cuauhtémoc Blanco, Memo Ochoa, Jared Borgetti, Rafael Márquez, Pável Pardo, The country hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1968 and the FIFA World Cup in 1970 and 1986, and was the first country to host the FIFA World Cup twice.
- Political confilct
For those of us fortunate to live in the developed world it is perhaps easy to sneer at the rhetorical flourish often used by American and Western leaders to describe their diplomatic and practical support for the prohibition of banned narcotics. Living with the end product of drug use – the occasional hassle from drug dealers, addiction related theft or even perhaps the addiction of a friend or a relative – is, whilst potentially upsetting and deeply stressful on a personal level, unlikely to elicit the desire for a military response from those involved. Much like the other infamous ‘declaration’ of war (on terror) its usage has been scaled down by policy makers in recent years, feeling that the term has lost some of its power since its inception by President Nixon in 1971. The conflict in Mexico that centres on the drug trade however has by no means scaled down. Since the introduction of military force by President Felipe Calderon in 2006 the conflict there has exploded in scale, claiming the lives of thousands every year. Despite being (relatively) underreported in British media, over 50,000 men, women and children have now died in the 6 years since President Calderon’s militarisation of the combat. Bombings, beheadings and assassinations are all legitimate tools of the anti-government campaign, with allegations of corruption and murder rebounding upon the military and police forces in equal measure. After years of this horrific and unceasing violence, there is a growing voice advocating compromise with leaders of all factions, despite frustration on behalf of the government’s major ally, the United States of America. Now read the last paragraph again, but this time hold the War in Afghanistan in mind as the subject matter rather than the conflict in Mexico. The statements are equally valid in relation to both. Some may say that such wordplay is manipulative – and this is potentially true – but in this case it is very simple to do. The Wars – and they are both wars – in Afghanistan and Mexico have been concurrent in their timescale and yet strangely disassociated in their media representation. One may be forgiven for not being aware of the conflict in Mexico but it cannot be said to be the same for Afghanistan. The death toll for Afghanistan is actually considerably lower than that in Latin America too. So what does that teach us about the international political narrative? It most definitely shows us the natural prejudice international dialogue has for civil rather than international conflicts. Conflicts often seem to only become fully-fledged wars when there is substantial international involvement – as is the case with Afghanistan. It also shows that, despite the toning down of the rhetoric by the Obama administration on the War on Terror, this struggle continues to dominate their perspective of the world. It also shows that some elements of Clausewitzian style thinking on war remain – the identifiable enemy (the Taliban), the identifiable aim (their defeat) and the identifiable motive (to secure America from another massive terrorist attack). As the war drags on these traits can and have been diluted. In Mexico however the opposite seems to have been true, with the identity and threat from the Cartels only becoming clear when war began to be waged on them. It is wars such as those in Mexico that will continue to blur the definitions of what makes a war in the 21st century. Scholarly opinion has been in agreement that the growth of nuclear weapons in possession of the major states of the world has made large scale warfare on the scale of 1939-45 unthinkable in any real sense. Increasingly conflicts will be fought in the style of Afghanistan and Mexico – gritty, low-scale wars, dragging on for years with no decisive end in sight. In reality both these wars – or conflicts – are a taste of things to come. The Mexican Drug War may be underreported but that doesn’t make it unimportant. The real ‘War on Drugs’, despite the decline in usage of that term, has no real end in sight.
- Unusual law
Aguascalientes: Any kind of nude artistic display is against the law. (Pity!) Clergymen must not wear their religious clothing in public. Cyclists must not lift even one foot from the peddles, in case they lose control. Guadalajara: It is illegal to shout offensive words in any public place. Guadalajara: Women who work for the government of the city may not wear cute mini skirts or any other "provocative" garment during office hours. If a Mexican enters the USA illegally it then becomes illegal for him to return to Mexico. Mexico City: It is illegal to say to anyone "Have a nice day." Telling jokes about one-legged men is strictly forbidden.