What is Photosynthesis?

No really, what is photosynthesis?
By: Sydney Patton

Photosynthesis- the process where plants make their own food from sunlight. Most plants are able to make food directly from light energy, for example the Sun, instead of eating other organisms or relying on nutrients. Photosynthesis can happen in plants because they have chlorophyll and chlorophyll is the pigment that makes plants green. Chlorophyll captures the Sun’s energy and uses it to make sugars out of carbon dioxide from the air and water. The sugars fuel a plant's roots, stems, and leaves so the plant can grow. After plants use the Sun's light to make their food, plants release oxygen into the air. This oxygen is very helpful because humans and animals need it to breathe. Make sure you thank plants for the oxygen you use everyday!

Plants and other producers use carbon dioxide in photosynthesis. They produce oxygen as a waste product. Carbon dioxide (CO2) moves from the air into the leaves of plants. Oxygen (O2) moves from the plant into the air through the leaves.Almost all living things, including plants, get energy from cellular respiration. This process releases energy from the sugar molecules in food. Oxygen is used in cellular respiration. Carbon dioxide is produced as a waste product.The oxygen produced during photosynthesis is used in cellular respiration. The carbon dioxide produced in cellular respiration is used in photosynthesis. This is the oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle.

Light-dependent reaction-The exergonic (energy-releasing) light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis convert light energy into chemical energy, producing ATP and NADPH. These reactions occur in the grana (stacks of thylakoids) of the chloroplasts. The products of the light-dependent reactions, ATP and NADPH, are both required for the endergonic (energy-requiring) light-independent reactions.

Light-independent reaction-The endergonic (energy-requiring) light-independent reactions of photosynthesis use the ATP and NADPH synthesized during the exergonic (energy-releasing) light-dependent reactions to provide the energy for the synthesis of glucose and other organic molecules from inorganic carbon dioxide and water. This is done by "fixing" carbon atoms from CO2 to the carbon skeletons of existing organic molecules. These reactions occur in the stroma of the chloroplasts.

Two membranes contain and protect the inner parts of the chloroplast. The stroma is an area inside of the chloroplast where reactions occur and starches (sugars) are created. One thylakoid stack is called a granum. The thylakoids have chlorophyll molecules on their surface. That chlorophyll uses sunlight to create sugars. The stacks of sacs are connected by stromal lamellae. The lamellae act like the skeleton of the chloroplast, keeping all of the sacs a safe distance from each other and maximizing the efficiency of the organelle.

The purpose of the chloroplast is to make sugars and starches. They use a process called photosynthesis to get the job done. Photosynthesis is the process of a plant taking energy from the Sun and creating sugars. When the energy from the Sun hits a chloroplast, chlorophyll uses that energy to combine carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). The molecular reactions create sugar and oxygen (O2). Plants and animals then use the sugars (glucose) for food and energy. Animals also use the oxygen to breathe.

Chloroplasts have the most important job in the entire cell, not only do they just help the plant with photosynthesis and give the plant the nutrients to respire Chloroplast is the whole reason why the plant is even living. Without it the plant can't survive so the Chloroplasts deserve more then what they have already been given considering how important they actually are to the plants very own survival.

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