Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with how thermal energy is converted to other forms of energy. Thermal energy is the energy or thing that has to do with heat (The energy of moving molecules). It can contain large numbers of atoms and molecules and can be quite confusing at times. If the large amount of atoms and molecules have the right criteria which are called equilibrium which can be measured in very small numbers.
Thermodynamics is connected with other properties of mater the most common is heat. Heat is a type of energy transferred between to objects due to temperature. Heat can not be destroyed nor converted but it can be transferred to other objects. How hot the heat is transferred depends on how many atoms or molecules are in the area and how fast they are moving. Temperature is a measure of kinetic energy that can be seen on a scale of units or degrees.
When a object is being heated all the way though it's called Specific Heat. The specific heat of metal depends on how many atoms or molecules are involved as per usual. Thermal conductivity is speed that heat passes through different materials. The variable of this is considered k so the things that k is used for is copper and silver since they're highly conductive. These materials are highly competitive they are commonly used in reactors. Other materials that aren't that conductive are used for building so it doesn't get that hot. Newton's law of cooling is stating that the changes of the heat is due to the surrounding environment. So if your hand is really hot and put it under cold water it will change due to the cold surrounding.
Heat can be transferred between three different ways Convection, Conduction and Radiation.
Convection is a from of heat transfer that happens when gas or liquid are surrounding something to heat or cool it.
Conduction it when things are touching and the heat is moving through the things.
Radiation is a form of heat transfer that travels through objects.
In 1824 Nickolas Léonard Sadi Carnot made a model for a heat engine now known as the Carnot Cycle. This engine compresses gas and increases or cools the temperature. This is used in cooling systems in house holds. This is very basic for engineeres.
All thermodynamic systems make waste heat which makes more entropy. Entropy in closed systems never deceases it only incenses. This makes all forever running systems impossible. Entropy is also called a measure of disorder and randomness
There are four laws of thermaldinamics. There once was three but scientist agreed on a fourth law.
The first law states that if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with some body then they are all in thermal equilibrium together.
The second law states that heat is an energy and is connected with conservation.
The third law states that heat can not be transferred to something with a lower temperature unless another form of energy is used.
The forth law states that if there is a entropy as waste energy at absolute zero there can not be any heat energy.