Hundred Years War
By Evan Harr and Ripken Reynolds
How did the hundred years war revolutionize the future of war strategy?
England vs France
Factors of the
Hundred Years War was an intermittent struggle between England & France in the 14th - 15th century. Proposed to have started in 1337 and ended in 1453, there was periodic fighting over the question of english fiefs in France going back to the 12th century.
- Battle of Crecy:
Battle of Crecy was one of the first major battles of the Hundred Years War. After the battle of Sluys, "Edward III landed in Normandy in July 1346 with about 10,000 men". The English decided to halt near Crecy in Normandy and prepare for tomorrows battle. However, the French made the first move into attacking as many as 15 attacks. Because the English were stationed on a hill, Edward relied on his archers to take out each of the 15 attacks. Plus, due to the bad terrain on the hill. The french were not able to get close enough to the English for a close combat fight.
- Battle of Agincourt:
After the successful siege at Harfleaur, "Henry marched his force of about 6000 knights, archers and men-at-arms towards Calais". The French army of about 20,000 were able to position themselves between Henry and Calais. "Henry used a narrow front channeled by woodlands to give his heavily outnumbered force a chance". The French deployed in three lines, first line were French knights who were repulsed by the storm of arrows from the English. The second line of men were later turned around by the mud and terrain of the field. The third line however, lost heart as soon as the crossed the woodlands to the open field of dead French troops, turning aways and retreating leaving the English with another victory.
English king took much control of France, especially in the south. These lands came into control of England when Eleanor of Agincourt, heiress to the region, married Henry II of England.
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc was a female war leader for the French who raised an army to siege Orleans by a relief force. She was a very successful leader to the French army, giving them an amount of victorious battles to stay strong. Joan was later captured by the Burgundians, sold to the English, and tried and executed for heresy.
Creation of Spanish Empire
- Rise of Spanish Empire, Isabella of Castile & Ferdinand of Aragon:
Isabella of Castile's marrage with Ferdinand best advanced the political and national interests of Castile. It united the two kingdoms and made one nation for their people who were the same race, spoke the same language, religions and laws. "United, their strength would equal that of any European power, while, separated, they must remain inferior." A favorable answer was sent to the Court of Aragon, and was received by the king and Prince Ferdinand. The first seven years of her reign were disturbed by a war in which "she was made to defend her rights against the followers of Jane," daughter of the Queen married to Henry IV.
Critical Thinking Questions
Now that you understand how the Hundred Years War revolutionized war strategy how were these strategies of the English military similar to the Roman military
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"Life and Times of Isabella of Castile." Life and Times of Isabella of Castile. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2014.
"A Timeline of the Holy Roman Empire." A Timeline of the Holy Roman Empire. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2014.