The Rainforest

Biotic Factors

Animals                                                                                                      Plants

red eyed tree frog                                                                                      orchid

tucan                                                                                                         banana plant

jaguar                                                                                                        bromeliad

piranha                                                                                                      bougainvillea

spider monkey                                                                                           brazil nuts

9 banded armadillo                                                                                  anthurium bush

caiman                                                                                                      boston fern

three toed sloth                                                                                          boxwood bush       

tapir                                                                                                            laurel bush

macaw                                                                                                       pistia stratiotes

 poison dart frog                                                                                         egeria spp.                                                             

Abiotic Factors








Carrying Capacity and changes in population

Carrying capacity is the largest # of one species that an enviroment can support. An enviroment has the required resources to support an organism such as: food, water, shelter, and space.

The cheetah population could go up or down depending on the amount of resources or predators. The population could go up if there were a lot resources and less predators but could go down if there was little food and a bunch of predators.

1900- 100,000   

1940- 70,000

1980- 24,000

2013- 6,000

Limiting factors- any factor or condition that limits the growth of population in an Eco

Some examples are: food,water,shelter and space

A predator prey relationship is between the leopard and the squirrel. If one of the animals have a shortage in supply (limiting factors) there could be a population decrease or increase depending on which animal needs the shortened supply.

He's hiding from a leopard.

Trophic Levels and Energy Pyramids

Energy Roles: Quantitative measure of production or consumption of energy by an organism. ex. grass, mouse, cat, jaguar

Producers are the most vital part in the food chain, web, or pyramid because they are the only organisms that can turn the suns energy into chemical energy(radiant to chemical).

Food webs are more realistic for an ecosystem because it shows all the possibilities for an organism(s).

If you remove the rainforest plants then over time everything will die off due to the fact that plants(producers) are the only organisms that can convert the suns radiant energy into chemical energy that animals need.

             Tertiary consumer                  Jaguar           1          kcal(s)

        Secondary consumer                    Bird             10        kcals

            Primary  consumer            Grasshoppers     100      kcals

                           Producer                    Grass           1000    kcals


There's a reason we use the shape of a pyramid to show energy instead of other shapes like a cube(square), or a sphere(circle). This is because a pyramid can correctly show the energy flow or passage of kcals through organisms.

In an energy pyramid the producers(plants) are at the bottom of the pyramid which is also the largest section. This is because producers(plants) are the only organisms that can take the radiant energy from the sun and convert that into chemical energy that organisms that can't absorb radiant energy can use. And their section is larger because they take in the most kcals(largest quantity).


6 CO2 + 6H2O ------------- C6H12O6 + 6 O2

Water, carbon dioxide, and radiant energy are needed for photosynthesis to occur.Glucose, oxygen, and water are created after photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast(the stuff that turns radiant energy into chemical energy.


Tropisms- a turning or bending movement of an organism toward or away from an external stimulus such as, light ,heat, or gravity. ex. A plant growing toward the sun during the sun and a plant's roots growing towards water underground.

Tropisms can help a plant survive by moving it to a possibly a needed resource such as light or water.

Role of Decomposers

Having decomposers in an ecosystem is very important because if we didn't there wouldn't be anything to decompose the dead organisms and turn them into nutrients for the soil. ex. mushrooms,worms,fungi,bugs or beetles, and some bacteria.


Adaptations are important because they help animals adapt in certain ways that help them survive. ex. lianas are vines that have adapted by having their roots in the ground and grow to reach the canopy to receive sunlight. The Boa Constrictor is able to sneak up on prey using its camouflage.

As you can see, the vines have risen from the ground to reach the canopy.

This chameleon can use camouflage to hide from predators and sneak up on prey.

If an animal from one ecosystem that they have already adapted to was placed in an entirely different one, they would either have a hard time adapting(if they survive) or they would die in an incredibly short amount of time.

Natural Selection

Natural Selection- the process in nature by which, organisms that are better adapted to their environment tend to survive longer than of those who haven't.


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