Continuity & Change in the United States 1997 - 2015

Thesis: Throughout the last seventeen years the United States has experienced  many challenges that have altered America's role in the world, culture, and the economy. However those challenges that America was faced with, fostered change but was also able to maintain continuity. Even though we have changed tremendously, most of them were for the better such as the advancement in technology, and our response towards attacks by terrorist.  Nevertheless our democratic system, beliefs, citizenship,  and freedom of speech have remained the same from 1997 - 2015.

Document A:

Source: SexyStriptis / Sep 21, 2013  / Madeleine Albright on Women and Leadership / Recordings (Oral History) / Year of Birth /

Historical Context:  There was never a female secretary until 1997 when Madeleine Albright became the first secretary of state. This primary source document represents the impact she had on American politics and society but when it came to the society it was  more directed towards women.  Madeleine Alright could have possibly been a role model for younger girls because those younger girls could have looked up to her and think anything is possible especially when she was the first female to become Secretary of state.

Purpose: This was created to inform people about Madeleine Albright about her life and what led to her becoming secretary of state but also her accomplishments afterwards.

Culture: This recording of Madeleine Albright on Women and Leadership is significant because it starts off by saying the statement that she holds the historic title of being the first woman to ever serve in the United States government as Secretary of State. Further on it talks about how she was ambassador to the United Nations and then became Secretary of State and how she wants to see women really represent us. This demonstrates the impact she has caused on American politics and society but also how she made it possible for women to become part of politics and head of state.

Document B:

Source: Essam S. Atallah / June 11, 2013 / Cell Phones Evolution: From Dyna-TAC 8000X to iphone 5 / Manuscript & Archival Material (Artifacts - manufactured items) / Work, Exchange, & Technology / Year after birth /

Historical Context: The first mobile phone call was made 40 years today, on April 3, 1973, by Motorola employee Martin Cooper. Over the years cell phones have made an outstanding progress going from being a means of voice communications only (which is what it was invented for) into a companion device that connects one person with the whole word via text messaging, internet access, and social networking. This tremendous development in cellular phone technology and in users’ demands had great impact on major engineering decisions in its development. The primary source above shows the very first cell phone that featured an internal antenna.

Purpose: To display to citizens but also consumers the first cell phone that featured an internal antenna that was released by Nokia in 1998.  

Work, Exchange, & Technology: Technology has expanded over the decades with cell phones being designed with new features. This artifact (manufactured item) is significant because it shows the first cell phone that contained an internal antenna. This change in technology influenced our generation today and the U.S society. If you think about it, this was the first step into cell phones advancing in its qualities and features. If this cell phone was never designed with an internal antenna then technology would have never advanced and prospered as much as it has and as fast as it has.

Document C:

Source: My Videos / Apr 23, 2007 / When the World Stopped Turning: A 9/11 tribute / Recordings (Music) / America in the World / Elementary School /

Historical Context: There has never been a terrorist attack that was so major as September 11, 2001. 19 militants associated with the Islamic extremist group al-Qaeda, hijacked four airliners and carried out suicide attacks against targets in the United States on 09/11. Unfortunately more than 3,000 people were killed during the attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C., including more than 400 police officers and firefighters. These attacks that are often referred to as September 11th, resulted in extreme destruction and a massive number of death. The primary source document represents a small glimpse of what happened on September 11 and how people reacted but it also included news clips from broadcasting's that were being aired at the time.   

Purpose: To show sympathy for the people we lost on September 11, 2001 but also describe the situation that occurred whether it was going to church and praying, or starring at astonishment and surprise.

America in the World: In my opinion I feel as this video is foremost important because it highlights the terrorist attack that changed the U.S. foreign policy and America as we know it. As a result from September 11, 2001 immigration laws were made more stringent. At the time the president promised that the United States would triumph over terrorism by stopping it, eliminating it, and destroying it where it grows. In the end, almost 30 nations pledged military support to the United States, and many more offered other kinds of cooperation. Overall this terrorist attack changed the U.S. foreign policy by making the US military and immigration laws more strict and alert.  

Document D:

Source: Carol Hills / May 02, 2011 / Global Political Cartoons: The death of Osama Bin Laden / Visual Materials (Political Cartoon) / America in the World / Middle School /

Historical Context: Osama Bin Laden was a terrorist, extremest, who caused conflict and terror within his own country and abroad. On May 2, 2011 US special forces swooped down on the compound in stealth helicopters, swept through the buildings within the high walled enclosure and shot dead a total of five people including Osama Bin Laden. The primary source document represents Osama Bin Laden saying after his death "Well Played America, Well Played." That quote demonstrates Bin Laden giving kudos to the Americans on how they had located him and took him out instantly not wasting anytime and he was impressed.

Purpose: This source illustrated above is to show Osama Bin Laden telling America well played with them killing him.

America in the World: When it comes to Osama Bin Laden there has been many different attacks involving him and the United Sates. He had been on the FBI’s “most wanted” list for more than a decade and was involved in the 1998 bombings of the U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania and the September 11, 2001 attacks on the Pentagon and the World Trade Center. On May 2, 2011, American soldiers killed al-Qaida leader Osama bin Laden at his compound near Islamabad, Pakistan. This political cartoon is significant because the quote he says "Well Played America, Well Played." is in reference to American soldiers killing him. This demonstrates the U.S military changing the U.S foreign policy and killing a terrorist but also showing that we do not accept terrorist's attacking our country.

Document E:

Source: Ernest James / July 15, 2013 / The Law Saved George Zimmerman, Costing Trayvon Martin His Life / Visual Materials (Images) / Culture / Middle School /

Historical Context: Even though it is 2012 must people think racial discrimination and racism is eliminated. Unfortunately that is not the case as you can see from the source above. The primary source document represents two men of different races that were involved in a confrontation. The death of Trayvon Martin caused by George Zimmerman reflects the tension but also the violence that can be common between two different races.  

Purpose: The purpose of this source is to show citizens the difference between Trayvon Martin and George Zimmerman. The author decided to show the age and weight of both of them side by side. But also the author described the situation and both of their personalities. Ernest James described Trayvon Martin as a student who majored in cheerfulness but was also an A and B student whereas George Zimmerman repeatedly called the cops 46 times since January 01, 2011. Lastly, it shows both perspectives of the incident that occurred on February 26, 2012 saying that all Trayvon Martin was doing is walking home from the store with an iced tea and skittles to watch the NBA game but George Zimmerman thought he looked like he was up to good and shot him dead.

Culture: This image that was displayed within the article, The Law Saved George Zimmerman, Costing Trayvon Martin His Life is significant because it provides a picture and a few details about both men. However one piece of information the document does not include about Trayvon Martin and George Zimmerman is that Trayvon Martin was suspended from school for ten days due to the discovery of drug residue in his book bag. In regards to George Zimmerman at the time he was a a neighborhood watch captain at the Retreat at Twin Lakes gated community in Sanford. This source demonstrates the impact of popular culture on American society. Even though Trayvon Martin didn't deserve to die, unfortunately he was killed because he looked guilty and Zimmerman was just protecting himself. In the end, this case turned into a fight based off of skin color which has an impact on American politics and society, hopefully fights or disputes between two different races don't fall under racism in the future.

Document F:

Source: David A. Fahrenthold / November 7, 2012 / Obama reelected as president / Texts (Published or Published) (Newspaper) / Politics & Power / High School

President Obama elected to a second term

By David A. Fahrenthold

Barack Obama was elected to a second presidential term Tuesday, defeating Republican Mitt Romney by reassembling the political coalition that boosted him to victory four years ago, and by remaking himself from a hopeful uniter into a determined fighter for middle-class interests.

Obama, the nation’s first African American president, scored a decisive victory by stringing together a series of narrow ones. Of the election’s seven major battlegrounds, he won at least six.

“While our journey has been long, we have picked ourselves up,” Obama told a cheering crowd of supporters in his home town of Chicago early Wednesday morning. “We have fought our way back. And we know in our hearts that, for the United States of America, the best is yet to come.”

He said he intends to sit down with Romney in the weeks ahead to talk about how the two can work together.

Obama also made an oblique reference to the hard, negative edge of his campaign, saying that even this bitter election was something to be envied in nations around the world that enjoy fewer freedoms: “These arguments we have are a mark of our liberty.”

His election capped a night of gains for the once beaten-down American left. Democrats Tammy Baldwin in Wisconsin and Elizabeth Warren in Massachusetts won Senate races, as the party kept control of that chamber. Liberal causes also won in several states: Maryland and Maine became the first to legalize same-sex marriage by popular vote. Colorado and Washington passed laws that legalized some marijuana use.

Romney, a former Massachusetts governor, had built his campaign around the single contention that the U.S. economy is battered and adrift because of Obama’s failures, and that his business experience uniquely qualified him to fix it.

In the end, that wasn’t enough, in part because the economy undermined his argument by showing signs of improvement. Just weeks before Election Day, the national unemployment rate dropped below 8 percent for the first time since Obama took office.

Voters also did not warm to Romney. Even after many months and millions of dollars put toward trying to make him look good, exit polls showed that just as many voters trusted Obama to handle the economy as trusted Romney.

Historical Context: Every president is allowed to run for 2 terms and within a term they do service for four years. In 2008 Barack Obama became the president of the United States but after his four years his first term was up. By the end of 2012 the citizens of the United States of America had to vote whether they wanted Barack Obama to remain as our president or if they wanted Mitt Romney to become our president and take Barack Obama's place. But once the voting was over with, it was determined that Barack Obama was reelected and will remain as our present for another four years. The primary source document represents the political debates over political values in the United States.

Purpose: Obama reelected as president was written to make it clear of why Obama was reelected and how he beat Romney.

Politics & Power: This article from the journal, Obama reelected as president, is significant because it illustrates the relationship and feelings the citizens have for Barack Obama, their campaigning techniques, but also their main arguments. This article states "Romney... had built his campaign around the single contention that the U.S. economy is battered... because of Obama’s failures...In the end, that wasn’t enough, in part because the economy undermined his argument by showing signs of improvement." That statement presents the debates between Barrack Obama and Mitt Romney over political values. However even though these debates will continue to happen hopefully now the candidates know not to make a reference to the economy when the economy can change and not support what the candidate stated.

Document G:

Source: ANDREW TAYLOR /  10/01/2013 / Government Shutdown Begins As Congress Fails To Pass Continuing Resolution / Texts (Printed or Published) (Journal) / Politics & Power / High School /

Government Shutdown Begins As Congress Fails To Pass Continuing Resolution


WASHINGTON — Congress plunged the nation into a partial government shutdown Tuesday as a long-running dispute over President Barack Obama's health care law stalled a temporary funding bill, forcing about 800,000 federal workers off the job and suspending most non-essential federal programs and services.

The shutdown, the first since the winter of 1995-96, closed national parks, museums along the Washington Mall and the U.S. Capitol visitors center. Agencies like NASA and the Environmental Protection Agency will be all but shuttered. People classified as essential government employees – such as air traffic controllers, Border Patrol agents and most food inspectors – will continue to work.

The health care law itself was unaffected as enrollment opened Tuesday for millions of people shopping for medical insurance.

Historical Context: There has not been a government shutdown since 1995 - 1996. When it came to Obamacare, congress did not necessarily agree to it. Per the constitution congress has one key duty in the Constitution which is to pass spending bills that fund the government. This is achieved when the House and Senate come to an agreed upon budget and send it to the president for his signature or veto. This primary source is appropriate because it represents the conflict that was caused because of a disagreement regarding the meaning and interpretation of the Constitution. The government shutdown was caused because the House and Senate did not want to pass Obamacare which resulted in the government shutting down.

Purpose: To inform readers that because of the government shutdown some services were currently shutdown as well.

Politics & Power: This article from the journal, Huffington  post written by Andrew Taylor is significant because it illustrates the results of an argument over the meaning and interpretation of the Constitution. The article states, "Congress plunged the nation into a partial government shutdown Tuesday as a long-running dispute over President Barack Obama's health care law stalled a temporary funding bill." This quote demonstrates the disagreement between Congress and the President regarding the health care law which is in reference to the meaning of the Constitution.

Document H:

Source: Carly Page / Jun 05 2015 / Apple Watch price, where to buy, release date and specs / Manuscript & Archival Material (Artifacts - manufactured items) / Work, Exchange, & Technology / 2015 current year /

Historical Context: Apple Inc was first founded on April 1, 1976. Through the last 40 years Apple has created many different pieces of high tech electronic components such as the iPod, the iPhone, the iPad, etc. When it comes to their devices they are generally speaking beneficial and efficient in their own unique way. The primary source document represents the new piece of technology and how it will change people's lifestyle and influenced the U.S. society. The apple Watch is unlike any device they've ever made. They wanted interacting with it to be just as easy and intuitive as using their iPhone or working on a Mac. So they invented all-new ways to select, navigate, and input that are ideally suited to a smaller device worn on the wrist.

Purpose: The purpose of this source is to show consumers the new piece of technology that Apple has come out with. The author decided to display three different styles of the Apple watch with three different features to show their buyers the variety when it comes to their product.

Work, Exchange, & Technology: This artifact (manufactured item) is significant because it displays the Apple Watch with a few of the features that is included within the device. Those features that are being illustrated will impact people's lives for the better. The image shows one watch with the weather, whereas another watch shows the time. Within every watch you are fully packed with VoiceOver, Navigation,  Siri, and many more features besides just those few features listed. The changes Apple inc. have made over the years have changed people's lives. In today's society may people go out and buy the newest product released by Apple. Overall the Apple inc. and the Apple watch have influenced the U.S society.

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