EARTH, MOON, AND SUN
By Jenny Campbell
SECTION 1: EARTH IN SPACE
How does Earth move in space?
Earth moves in two ways, rotation and revolution. Rotation is the spinning of Earth on its axis. Revolution is the movement of one object around another. This is a video showing the rotation and revolution of Earth:
What causes the cycle of seasons on Earth?
Earth has seasons because its axis is tilted as it revolves around the sun. An axis is the imaginary line that passes through Earth's center and the North and South poles. Because the axis is tilted as Earth revolves around the sun, some places get more direct sunlight at times, creating seasons.
SECTION 2: GRAVITY AND MOTION
What determines the strength of the force of gravity between two objects?
The strength of the force of gravity depends on two factors, the masses of the objects and the distance between them. Mass is the amount of matter in an object. Weight is the force of gravity on an object.
What two factors combine to keep the moon and Earth in orbit?
Inertia and gravity. Newton, a well-known scientist, found out that these two factors combine to keep Earth in orbit around the sun and the moon in orbit around the Earth. Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion. Gravity is the attractive force between objects; its strength depends on their masses and the distance between them.
SECTION 3: PHASES, ECLIPSES, AND TIDES
What causes the phases of the moon?
The different shapes of the moon we see from Earth are called phases. Phases are caused by changes in the relative positions of the moon, Earth, and the sun. The phases of the moon depends on how much of the sunlit side of the moon faces Earth.
This picture shows the different phases of the moon.
What are solar and lunar eclipses?
An eclipse is when an object in space comes between the sun and a third object, it casts a shadow on that object. When the moon's shadow hits Earth or Earth's shadow hits the moon, and eclipse occurs. There are two types of eclipses; lunar and solar. A solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes directly between Earth and the sun, blocking sunlight from Earth. A lunar eclipse occurs at a full moon when Earth is directly between the moon and the sun. During a lunar eclipse, the Earth blocks sunlight from reaching the moon.
What causes the tides?
Tides are caused mainly by differences in how much the moon's gravity pulls on different parts of the Earth. The gravity of the sun and moon pull in the same direction. Together, their forces make a tide with the greatest difference between consecutive low and high tides, called a spring tide. When the line between Earth and the sun is at right angles to the line between the sun and moon, the sun's pull is at right angles to the moon's pull. This produces a neap tide, a tide with the least difference between consecutive low and high tides.
This is a picture of a tide:
SECTION 4: EARTH'S MOON
What features are found on the moon's surface?
Features on the moon's surface include maria, craters, and highlands. Maria are dark, flat areas. Craters are large round pits. Highlands are mountains.
This is a close-up of the moon
What are some characteristics of the moon?
The moon is Earth's closest neighbor in space. The moon is dry and airless. Compared to Earth, the moon is small and has large variations in its surface temperature. The moon is 3,476 kilometers in diameter. The moon has only one-eightieth as much mass as Earth. On the moon, temperatures range from torrid 130 degrees Celsius in direct sunlight to a frigid -180 degrees Celsius at night. The moon has no liquid water, but there is evidence of large patches of ice.
How did the moon form?
The collison-ring theory; about 4.5 billion years ago the solar system was full of rocky debris. some of this debris was the size of small planets. Scientists theorize that a planet-sized object collided with Earth to form the moon.
This is a video of the moon forming:
Moon Observation Data:
GALAXY MOON PARTY!
This is a galaxy themed party! There will be star gazing and dancing! Snacks will be provided!
Make sure to wear all galaxy printed clothing!
When: May 1st 2015
Where: In space, on the milky way.
We will have the band Train preform Drops of Jupiter!
See you there!
At the party, we will be selling Moon Shoes! You can dance like you're on the moon!