Moon Mania! #rockinreview

Moon Phases!

How does the moon affect the tides? the Moon's gravitational forces are strong enough to disrupt this balance by accelerating the water towards the Moon. This causes the water to 'bulge.' As the Moon orbits our planet and as the Earth rotates, the bulge also moves. The areas of the Earth where the bulging occurs experience high tide, and the other areas are subject to a low tide.


Waxing= The moon at any time after new moon and before full moon, so called because its illuminated area is increasing.

Waning= The moon at any time after full moon and before new moon (so called because its illuminated area is decreasing).

Gibbous= Convex at both edges, as the moon when more than half full.

Crescent= The figure of the moon as it appears before its first quarter phase or after its third quarter phase, with concave and convex edges terminating in points.

Moon Phases= Although the moon rises in the east and sets in the west each day (due to Earth’s spin), it’s also moving on the sky’s dome each day due to its own motion in orbit around Earth. The moon’s orbital motion can be detected in front of the stars from one night to the next. It’s as though the moon is moving on the inside of a circle of 360 degrees. Thus the moon moves about 12 degrees each day. Each day, as the moon moves another 12 degrees toward the east on the sky’s dome, Earth has to rotate a little longer to bring you around to where the moon is in space. Thus the moon rises, on average, about 50 minutes later each day. The later and later rising time of the moon causes our companion world to appear in a different part of the sky at each nightfall for about two weeks. Then, in the couple of weeks after full moon, you’ll find the moon rising later and later at night.

Lunar Cycle= Refers to the moon's continuous orbit around the earth. As the moon orbits the earth, its appearance (the "phase") changes and thus gives us an indication of the moon's progress in the cycle (the "age"). The sun always illuminates exactly one-half of the moon, but we see it at different angles as it rotates around the earth. With the naked eye, we can see only the part of the moon that the sun is illuminating. All lunar months approximate the mean length of the synodic month, or how long it takes on average to pass through each phase (new, half, full moon) and back again. It takes 29.5 days.

Earths Seasons and Eclipses! #eclipses

Who was Copernicus? Nicolas Copernicus was an astronomer who first gave the theory (which is now proven) that all planets revolve around the sun, which is called the heliocentric model of the solar system. The belief at the time was that the Earth was the center of the solar system/universe. We now know that Copernicus was right, but everybody in his time said he was a nutcase, and his heliocentric model didn't become popular until after Galileo and Keple.

Why do we have seasons? As the earth spins on its axis, producing night and day, it also moves about the sun in an elliptical (elongated circle) orbit that requires about 365 1/4 days to complete. The earth's spin axis is tilted with respect to its orbital plane. This is what causes the seasons. When the earth's axis points towards the sun, it is summer for that hemisphere. When the earth's axis points away, winter can be expected. Since the tilt of the axis is 23 1/2 degrees, the North Pole never points directly at the Sun, but on the summer solstice it points as close as it can, and on the winter solstice as far as it can. Midway between these two times, in spring and autumn, the spin axis of the earth points 90 degrees away from the sun. This means that on this date, day and night have about the same length: 12 hours each, more or less.

Why when the sun is closer to earth its not hotter then when its farther away?During the winter, the sun's rays hit the Earth at a shallow angle. These rays are more spread out, which minimizes the amount of energy that hits any given spot. Also, the long nights and short days prevent the Earth from warming up.

Why isn't there a lunar eclipse every month?

This is because the Earth, Sun and Moon are not in the same orbital planes. The Moon orbits the Earth in a slightly tilted manner, thus most of its orbits it either passes above or below the shadow of the Earth, or passes above or below the Sun, thus preventing an eclipse.

Causes of eclipses!

How do we have day and night?

When where you are is pointed toward the Sun, it is day. Then the Earth rotates you away from the Sun, and it is night.

Diagram showing how we have day and night!


Equinox= The time or date (twice each year) at which the sun crosses the celestial equator, when day and night are of equal length (about September 22 and March 20).

Solstice= Either of the two times in the year, the summer solstice and the winter solstice, when the sun reaches its highest or lowest point in the sky at noon, marked by the longest and shortest days.

By: Samie Woodbury :0)

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Plates! #platetectonics

Who is Alfred Wegener? Alfred Wegener was a scientist who unraveled the the mystery of the tectonic plates and why the continents are shape the way they are. He figured out by cutting a scale map of the continents and fitting them together like a puzzle.he also formulated the theory that the continent move by tectonic action by way of massive plates in the earths crust.he was not widely believed and it took awhile for the idea to take hold and be accepted by mainstream scientist and geologist.

Convergent Boundary= An actively deforming region where two (or more) tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere move toward one another and collide. As a result of pressure, friction, and plate material melting in the mantle, earthquakes and volcanoes are common near convergent boundaries.

Convergent Boundary

Divergent Boundary= A tectonic boundary where two plates are moving away from each other and new crust is forming from magma that rises to the Earth's surface between the two plates.

Divergent Boundary!

Transform Boundary= A transform boundary is a fault zone where two plates slide past each other horizontally. Most transform faults are found in the ocean where they offset spreading ridges creating a zigzag pattern between the plates. Some transform faults occur on land.

Transform Boundary!

What tectonic plate is just off the coast of Washington? The Juan De Fuca Plate.

What role does the Juan De Fuca plate have on the formation of the Cascades? The Cascade Mountain range was formed by pressure from the collision of the Juan De Fuca plate and the North American plate. The Juan De Fuca plate is constantly being pushed into and under the North America an plate which pushes up the North American plate where the Cascades are. mountain is formed by the moving plates underground. when the plates meet and push aginst eachother and make a mountain.The Cascade Range is formed along convergent plate boundaries. This is when plates move toward each other. more specifically the type of plate collision that caused the Cascades is an oceanic-continental convergence. This is when a plate with continental leading edge slowly collides with a plate that has an oceanic leading edge.

What are convection currents and what role do they play in plate tectonics?Convection is defined as the movement of molecules in a fluid. Convection in the Earth is what causes flows in the plastic layer of Earth. This creates forces on the plates in the lithosphere to move because of convection.

Rift Zone= A system of related, narrow structural depressions between parallel faults.

Subduction Zone= The process by which collision of the earth's crustal plates results in one plate's being drawn down or overridden by another, localized along the juncture (subduction zone) of two plates.

How were the "Channeled Scablands" were formed? They formed during the Pleistocene Ice Ages, when lobes of ice blocked meltwater from the glacier, forming a huge lake, called Lake Missoula. Quite often, the water flowed over the ice dam, forcing it to rise and break, crating a huge flood, which carved out bot the channeled scablands as well as the Columbia River Gorge.

Rocks! #RocksandRoles

The ThreeTypes Of Rocks!

Sedimentary Rocks= Types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.

MetaMorphic Rocks= Rock That was once one form of rock but has changed to another under the influence of heat, pressure, or some other agent without passing through a liquid phase.

Igneous Rocks= Formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava.

Examples of these types of rocks!

Sedimentary Rock= One example of a sedimentary rock is Sandstone.

MetaMorphic Rock= One example of a metamorphic rock is Marble.

Igneous Rock= One example of a igneous rock is Obsidian.

Stratification= The Formation or deposition of layers, as of rock or sediments.

Example of Stratification!

How can the age of landforms can be estimated? If there is more rock layers it tends to be older since more sediment has formed into rock over time. The shape of rock layers too can estimate the age of landorms, since jagged rocks are much younger than flat thick rocks, due to erosion. 

The Rock Cycle!

What Geological events could have caused huge blocks of horizontal sedimentary layers to be tipped or older rock layers to be on top of younger rock layers?Sedimentary rocks are formed particle by particle and bed by bed, and the layers are piled one on top of the other. Thus, in any sequence of layered rocks, a given bed must be older than any bed on top of it. This Law of Superposition is fundamental to the interpretation of Earth history, because at any one location it indicates the relative ages of rock layers and the fossils in them.

What are ways that living organisms have shaped landforms? They die and their skeletons/shells build up layers. They dig holes in the ground allowing water to run into the ground. They build dams creating lakes. The eat vegetation promoting erosion. They send roots into cracks that can break down mountains.

We will rock you! Rock cycle song!

By: Samie Woodbury :0)