Hindenburg is elected President in Germany defeating Nazi Party candidate Adolph Hitler and another candidate.

November 8: Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) is elected president of the United States.


January 30: Hindenburg appoints Hitler chancellor of Germany.

February 6: 20th Amendment to the Constitution. Establishes the line of presidential succession in which the Vice-President becomes president if the President can no longer perform the duties of office.March 12: FDR makes his first "fireside chat" speaking to the United States population over the radio.

March 22: Dachau, the first concentration camp, is established in Germany. By the 1945 over 1000 concentration camps will be established.

March 25: Adolph Hitler seizes power in Germany. Hindenburg is reduced to a figure head.

April 7: In Germany, Jew and non-Aryans are banned from practicing law and working in the civil services. Later they will be banned from a variety of professions including farming, art, literature, journalism, music and theater. Between 1933-1939 over 1400 anti-Jewish laws will be passed in Germany.

March:: Japan leaves the League of Nations.Nazi Germany had withdraw earlier in the year.

October 21: Germany withdraws from the League of Nations.

December 5: 21st Amendment to the Constitution ends Prohibition.


April 7: Several thousand Americans attend a pro-Nazi rally in Queens. New York.

April 25: Germany passes law restricting college enrollment of Jews. Similar legal discrimination already exists in the United States.

July 14: In Germany, legislation is passed making the Nazi party the only legal political party. The Law for the Prevention of Hereditary Diseases is also passed, providing for the serilization of unfit parents and the "euthanasia" of "the defective" and "useless eaters."

July 31: In Germany, 30,000 are now interned.

August 2: Hitler assumes the presidency of Germany when Hindenburg dies and thus gains full control of the government.


September 5: In Germany, the first Nuremberg Laws are passed revoking citizenship from Jews and prohibiting them from marrying non-Jews.

October: Italy invades Ethiopia.

In the United States, the first Neutrality Acts are passed authorizing the president to deny American firms the right to sell or ship munitions to belligerent nations. The Neutrality Acts are later expanded in 1936.

Beginning in 1935 and continuing until 1938, Poland begins to create a Jewish policy modeled after that of Nazi Germany.


July 17: Spanish Civil War begins

August 1-16: Berlin Olympic Games. Nazis disguise outward signs of anti-Semitism

October 25: Formation of the Rome-Berlin Axis.

November 25:Japan and Germany sign Anti-Comiterm Pact.

November 3:FDR is elected for his second term.


August: Japan invades China.

October 5: FDRs Quarantine Speech calls for international cooperation against aggression.

November 25: Germany signs military agreement with Japan.

December 15: The Rape of Nanjing. The systematic rape, torture, and murder of more than 300,00 Chinese civilians by Japanese soldiers.


January 21: Romanian Jews are stripped of their citizenship.

March 12: Anschluss: Austria is annexed by Germany.

April 21: Jews eliminated from the economy in Germany. Their assets can be seized.

July 6-14: International conference in France that FDR initiated to discuss the Jewish refugees. 32 of the nations decide not to admit large numbers of Jews. Costa Rica and the Dominican Republic want money in return for admitting the displaced.

September: France and Britain enact a policy of appeasement, agreeing to the German annexation of Sudenten, Czechoslovakia.

November 9-19: Kristallnacht- the Night of the Broken Glass. Nazis violently attack Jews and destroy Jewish property, 91 Jews are killed and others are beaten.


January: For the first time in his annual address to Congress, FDR proposes no domestic reforms but instead stresses the danger posed to democracy and international peace by the forces of aggression. Later in the month, the United States budget shows increased spending on national defense.

March: Germany annexes the rest of Czechoslovakia. British Government pledges to aid Poland "at once . . . with all the support in their power" in the event that Poland is attacked by Germany.

June 17: The Jewish refugee ship the St. Louis arrives in Belgium after being denied access to Cuba and the United States. Most of the passengers are eventually murdered by the Nazis.

August 23: Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact announced in Moscow.

September 1: Germany invades Poland from the west.September 3: Britain declares war on Germany at 11 am, France declares war on Germany sixhours later.

September 5: The United States declares its neutrality.

September 9:The Germans reach Warsaw.

September 10: British troops arrive in France.

September 17: The Soviet Union invades Poland from the east.

September 21:FDR calls for a special session of Congress to repeal the Neutrality Acts. He argues the United States could preserve neutrality and provide Great Britian and France with arms by adopting a cash and carry plan.

September 27: Warsaw surrenders.

September 28: Soviet Union and Germany divide Poland.

October 6: Hitlers peace offer, based on a German victory in Poland, is rejected by Britain and France.

October 8: In Poland, the process of moving the Jewish population into ghettos begins.

October 11: Albert Einstein and others inform FDR of the possibility of creating an atomic bomb.

October 16: First German air raid on the British Isles.

November 4: The United States Congress amends the Neutrality Acts to favor Britain and France, lifting the embargo and authorizing cash & carry.

November 30: Soviet troops invade Finland.


January: Rationing is introduced in Britain.

Spring: The deportations of German Gypsies to concentration camps in the east begins.

April 9: German troops invade Denmark and Norway.

April 14: British forces land in Norway.

May 10: Holland, Belgium, and Luxembourg are invaded by Germany. British troops enter Belgium. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain resigns; Winston Churchill becomes new Prime Minister.

May 15: Holland surrenders to Germany.

May 28: Belgium surrenders to Germany.

June 3: Norway surrenders to Germany.

June 10: Italy declares war on Britain and France.

June 14: Germans enter Paris.June 22: France signs armistice with Germany.

June 24: France signs armistice with Italy.

June 25: Fair Employement Practice Committee (FEPC) is set up to reduce discrimination in government employment and in defense industries.

August 8: The Battle of Britain begins.

August 26: First all night air raid on London.

September 27: British win battle of Britain. Japan joins theRome-Berlin Axis.

October 28: Italy invades Greece.

October 29: British troops arrive in Greece.

November 5:FDR elected to an unprecedented third term as president.

December 20: In the United States, the Office of Production Management is set up to coordinate defense manufacturing and supply material aid to Great Britain. Defense manufacturing will eventually invigorate the United States economy by employing many previously unemployed workers, including an increasing number of women, coining the phrase Rosie the Riveter.

December 29: During a Fireside Chat, FDR declares that the U.S. should become an "arsenal of democracy" against the Axis threat.


January 10: Soviet Union renews pact with Germany.

March 11: FDR signs Lend-Lease Bill.

April 6: Germany invades Greece and Yugoslavia.

April 13: Germans occupy Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Russo-Japanese neutrality pact signed.

May 2: Allied troops evacuate Greece.

June 22: Germany attacks the Soviet Union.

June - July: Over 62,000 Jews are murdered in western Russia.

July 12: Anglo-Russian treaty signed.

August 11: Churchill and FDR form Atlantic Charter, establishing the war aims of both nations.

December 7: Britain declares war on Finland, Hungary, and Rumania. Japanese bomb the United States fleet at Pearl Harbor.

December 8: Britain and the United States declare war on Japan. Japan invades Malaya.

December 9: Japan invades Philippines.

December 11: Germany and Italy declare war on United States.

December 19: United States institutes extended military conscription for men ages 20-44.

December 27: Rationing in the United States begins with auto tires.


January 20: 14 Nazi leaders attend a short meeting to discuss the elimination of the remaining European Jews. The genocidal plan is dubbed "The Final Solution."

January 23: Japanese land in Solomon Islands.

January 30: In the United States, the Emergency Price Control Act fixes price ceilings and controls rents in areas of defense production.

February 19: By order of FDR, Japanese-Americans living on the West Coast are transferred to internment camps in the interior of the country.

April 10: Japan captures Bataan. By June, Japan also controls the Philippines.

April 18: The United States first attacks the Japanese by air.

May 4-8: Battle of Coral Sea.

June 3-6: Battle of Midway Island.

August 5-31: Germans advancing in Russia and start the Leningrad offensive on the 28th.

August 7: Americans land on Guadalcanal.

November 6-15: Battle of Guadalcanal, heavy losses on both sides, eventual United States victory.

November 8: United States and British forces land in French North Africa.

November 11: Germans enter unoccupied zone of Vichy France.

December: Fighting between German and Soviet forces in Stalingrad in the Soviet Union.

December 1: War rationing books are issued in America with coupons for gasoline, which joins sugar and coffee. Later, during 1943, meat, fats and oils, butter, cheese and processed foods are also rationed.

January 14: FDR and Churchill meet at Casablanca and decide upon a policy of "Unconditional Surrender."

January 31: 17 German Generals surrender to the Soviets at Stalingrad.

April 7-30: Allied offensive in Northern Tunisia.

May 13: German surrender in Tunisia.

May 27: Due to the migration of many African-Americans from the rural South to the defense centers of the North and the pressure of labor and civil rights groups, an Executive order strengthens the Fair Employment Practice Committee (FEPC) calling for mandatory inclusion of nondiscrimination clauses in war contracts and subcontracts. Between 1940 and 1970, 5 million African-Americans took part in this migration, known as the "Second Great Migration."

July 5: German forces mount a new offensive in Russia.

July 10: Allies invade Sicily.

July 12: Soviet Army counterattacks Germans in Russia.

July 25: Benito Mussolini is dismissed by King Victor Emmanuel in Italy and is arrested. He later attempts to escape to Switzerland with his mistress.

August 2: The end of eight days of intensive bombing of Hamburg, Germany by the Allies.

August 17: Allies complete conquest of Sicily.

August  December: The United States makes progress in the Pacific Theatre, making landings on the Solomon Islands, New Guinea, New Georgia and the Gilbert Islands.

September 3: Italy forms armistice with Allies.

September 8: Italy surrenders.

October 13: Italy declares war on Germany.

November 22-26: Cairo conference between Churchill and FDR

November 28: Teheran conference between the Big Three: Churchill, FDRand Joseph Stalin, of the Soviet Union.


January 22: Allied landings south of Rome in Anzio.

February 3: German offensive against Anzio Beachhead.

March 22: Japanese invade India.

April 10-18: Soviet troops experience success against the Germans in the Crimea.

June 4: Allies occupy Rome.

June 6: D-Day, Allied invasion of Normandy.

June 19-20: Battle of the Philippine Sea, Allied victory over Japanese forces.

June 22: The G. I. Bill of Rights was passed to provide for veterans after the war.

June 23: Russians start offensive on Central Front.

July 20: Bomb planted by Count von Stafenberg fails to kill Hitler.

July 24: American forces land on Marianas Islands.

July 27: Americans break through west of St. Lô in Normandy.

August 12: Germans in retreat from Normandy.

August 15: Allied forces land in southern France.

August 17: Japanese driven out of India.

August 25: Paris liberated by the Allies from the Germans. Rumania declares war on Germany.

September 3: Brussels liberated by Allied forces from German occupation.

September 13: Allies sign armistice with Rumania.

October 4: Allied forces land in Greece.

October 18: Russians enter East Prussia.

October 19: Americans land in Philippines.

October 23: Allies sign armistice with Bulgaria.

November 7: FDR is elected for his fourth term; Harry S Truman replaces Henry Wallace as his vice-president.

November 28-29: First American night air attack on Tokyo.

December 16-26: Battle of the Bulge, the last German offensive in the west.

December 30: Hungary declares war on Germany.


February 4: Americans enter Manila: Yalta Conference.

February 13: Dresden raid. Allied firebombing kills 135,000 Germans, including civilians, and destroys 80% of the city.

February 19: Americans land on Iwo Jima.

March 7: Americans find intact bridge across Rhine at Remagen, set up bridgehead on east bank.

March 18: Daylight air-raid on Berlin.

March 23: Alliescross the Rhine.

April 1: Germans surrounded in Ruhr valley. In the Pacific theatre, Americans invade Okinawa.

April 12: FDR dies, Harry S Truman takes over the presidency of the United States.

April 20: Americans capture Nuremberg.

April 28: Mussolini captured by Italian partisans and shot to death.

April 29: Dachau concentration camp is overrun by United States soldiers.

May 1: Hitler commits suicide.

May 2: Berlin surrenders to Russian forces.

May 4: German forces in Holland, North-West Germany, and Denmark surrender.

May 7: Unconditional surrender of all German forces to Britain, Russia, and the United States.

May 8: V-E Day: German surrender confirmed.

June 26: United Nations charter is signed.

July 5: Liberation of Philippines complete.

July 16: Potsdam conference ends. Meanwhile, the first atomic bomb is exploded in a test at Alamogordo, New Mexico.

July 26: Potsdam Declaration is delivered to Japan.

August 2: Potsdam conference ends.

August 5: Atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima.
August 8: Russia declares war on Japan.

August 9: Atomic bomb is dropped on Nagasaki.

August 14: Japan accepts Allied terms.

August 15: V-J Day.