Skeletal muscle system

What does the skeletal system do? The skeletal system is composed of bones that provide a framework that: Gives shape to the body, provides places to which muscles can attach to produce movement, protects the internal organs, stores minerals, and manufactures blood cells.

My/o- muscle

Arth/o- joint

Oste/o- bone

-itis- inflammation

-porosis- condition of pores (spaces)

Osteo/myel/itis- an infection of the bone.

Oseto/porosis- a weakening of the bone caused by the loss of calcium in the bone.

TERMS TO KNOW:

Anatomy- The study of the form and structure of an organism.

Pathophysiology- The study of why diseases occur and how the body reacts to them (changes in function caused by disease).

Physiology- The study of the functions (how and why something works) of an organism.

Syndrome- Not a precise disease but a group of related signs and symptoms.

Treatment- Medications or procedures used to control or cure a disease or injury.

Wellness- Promotion of health through preventive measures and the practice of good health habits; when the body is in a state of homeostasis.

Abduction- Movement away from the median plane of the body.

Adduction- Movement toward the median plane of the body.

Circumduction- Movement in a circular direction.

Extension- Straighten (increase the angle between the bones forming a joint).

Flexion- To bend (decrease the angle between the bones forming a joint).

Pronation- Turning the hand so the palm faces downward or backward (also refers to lying facedown).

Rotation- Motion around a central axis.

Supination- Turning the palm or foot upward (also refers to lying face up).

The Skeletal system is composed of the bones that provide a framework that:
-Gives shape to the body.
-Provides places to which muscles can attach to produce movement.

Bones vary in shape and are classified as follows;

Long bones: Longer than they are wide (arms: humerus, radius, ulna; legs:femur, tibia, fibula; fingers and toes: metacarpals, metatarsals, phalanges)

Short bones: similar in length and width (bones of the wrist and ankles, which are called carpals and tarsals, respectively)

Flat bones: Two layers with space between them (cranium, ribs, shoulder blade [scapula], breast-bone [sternum], pelvis)

Irregular bones: Those that do not fit into the other categories (spinal column [vertebrae], facial bones, patella)

Terms to know from the diagram

Cranium

Ribs

Femur

Patella

The Skeletal system is composed of the bones that provide a framework that:
-Gives shape to the body.
-Provides places to which muscles can attach to produce movement.
-Protects the internal organs.
-Stores minerals.
-Manufactures blood cells.

Medullary cavity (canal)- Center cavity containing yellow marrow (primarily fat cells); covered by a layer called endosteum.

Diaphysis- Portion that runs between the ends of the bone; also called the shaft.

Epiphyses- Ends of bone (proximal and distal).

Periosteum- White, fibrous layer that covers the outside of the bone; contains blood, lymph vessels, and nerves. Bone growth, repair, and nutrition occur in the periosteum. It also serves as an attachment for muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

Red marrow- Manufactures the red blood cells (RBCs), which carry oxygen, and the white blood cells (WBCs), which protect the body from infections. Red bone marrow is also found in other types of bones such as ribs (flat) and vertebrae (irregular).

Cartilage- Elastic connective tissue that covers the end of the bones and functions as a cushion between bones. Cartilage also covers the surface of joints and forms the flexible parts of the skeleton such as the ear lobes and the tip of the nose.

Need to know the location of muscles:

Biceps

Triceps

Gluteus Maximus

Frontalis

PREVENTIVE MEASURES

  1. Get adequate exercise, especially weight bearing activities such as walking.
  2. Avoid over-extension of joints.
  3. Eat properly and take in sufficient calcium and vitamin C.
  4. Maintain good posture.
  5. Use proper lifting techniques.

Bone Fractures

Simple- Crack or break

Compound- Open

Incomplete (Green stick)- The crack has not gone all the way through

Comminuted- Shattered in different places

Spiral (transverse)- Caused by twisting motion

Age-Related Changes: Skeletal System
-Decreased: Height, bone mass, flexibility
-Increased: Joint and cartilage erosion, thinning of vertebrae, demineralization of bones.

What are the 4 parts of the skeletal system?
(bones, cartilage, ligaments, joints)

How many bones in the body?
(206)

4 bone classifications?
(long, short, flat, irregular)

3 parts of axial skeleton
(skull, vertebral column, bony thorax)

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