Parts include: Bladder, 2 Kidneys, 2 Ureters, Urethra

The urinary system works with the lungs, skin and intestines to maintain the balance of chemicals and water in the body. Adults eliminate about a quart and a half (1.42 liters) of urine each day, depending on the amount of fluid consumed and fluid lost through perspiring and breathing.

The primary organs of the urinary system are the kidneys, which are bean-shaped organs that are located just below the rib cage in the middle of the back. From the kidneys, urine travels down two thin tubes, called ureters, to the bladder. Muscles in the ureter walls continuously tighten and relax to force urine away from the kidneys. The bladder stores urine until you are ready to empty it. Nerves in the bladder send signals when it needs to be emptied.

How it helps to Maintain homeostasis

The ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra together form the urinary tract, which acts as a plumbing system to drain urine from the kidneys, store it, and then release it during urination. Besides filtering and eliminating wastes from the body, the urinary system also maintains the homeostasis of water, ions, pH, blood pressure, calcium and red blood cells

Key Terms

  • kidneys- either of a pair of reddish brown bean-shaped organs in the back part of the abdominal cavity that form and excrete urine, regulate fluid and electrolyte balance, and act as endocrine glands. The left kidney is slightly higher than the right kidney
  • ureters- urine is secreted through the kidneys
  • bladder- where urine is stored
  • urethra- urine is expelled from the body through this

Disorders With the Urinary System

  • Edema- effusion of serous fluid into the interstices of cells in tissue spaces or into body cavities.
  • Kidney (renal) Failure- Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys lose the ability to sufficiently filter waste from the blood. Many factors can interfere with kidney health and function, such as toxic exposure to environmental pollutants and chemical food preservatives, certain diseases and ailments, and kidney damage.
  • Urinary incontinence- Urinary incontinence is a loss of control of the bladder. In some cases, it may result in a total loss of the bladder’s contents or it may just cause minor leakage. The condition may be temporary or chronic, depending on its cause.
  • Urinary Tract infection(UTI)- A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection involving the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra. These are the structures that urine passes through before being eliminated from the body.


The body system that eats and digests food breaking down food into simple chemicals that can be absorbed by other parts of the body so the chemicals can be used for energy and building the body, it also gets rid of waste after digestion.

The human digestive system is a series of organs that converts food into essential nutrients that are absorbed into the body and moves the unused waste material out of the body. It is essential to good health because if the digestive system shuts down, the body cannot be nourished or rid itself of waste.

Key Terms

  • Cardiac sphincter-  a valve found in the esophagus, the tube responsible for transporting foods and liquids to the stomach from the mouth.
  • Peristalsis- the progressive wave of contraction and relaxation of a tubular muscular system, especially the alimentary canal, by which the contents are forced through the system.
  • gastrointestinal system-  Food passes through a long tube inside the body known as the alimentary canal or the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract).
  • mouth- the opening through which an animal or human takes in food.
  • esophagus- a muscular passage connecting the mouth or pharynx with the stomach in invertebrate and vertebrate animals
  • stomach- a sac-like enlargement of the alimentary canal, as in humans and certain animals, forming an organ for storing, diluting, and digesting food.
  • small intestine- The small intestine is a long, highly convoluted tube in the digestive system that absorbs about 90% of the nutrients from the food we eat.
  • large intestine- The large intestine is the final section of the gastrointestinal tract that performs the vital task of absorbing water and vitamins while converting digested food into feces
  • liver- a large, reddish-brown, glandular organ located in the upper right side of the abdominal cavity, divided by fissures into five lobes and functioning in the secretion of bile and various metabolic processes.
  • gallbladder- a pear-shaped, muscular sac attached to the under-surface of the right lobe of the liver, in which bile is stored and concentrated.
  • pancreas- a gland, situated near the stomach, that secretes a digestive fluid into the intestine through one or more ducts and also secretes the hormone insulin.

Disorders of the Digestive System

  • Appendicitis- inflammation of the appendix
  • colon cancer- A cancer of the colon or rectum, which may begin as noncancerous polyps
  • constipation- Constipation occurs when bowel movements become become difficult or less frequent.
  • diarrhea- Diarrhea describes loose, watery stools that occur more frequently than usual.
  • diverticulosis- A condition in which small, bulging pouches develop in the digestive tract
  • heartburn- Heartburn is a burning pain in your chest, just behind your breastbone. The pain is often worse when lying down or bending over.

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